I recognized that I tend to post only positive results but at the same time I learn a lot from the mistakes of others I decided to devote this blog to my time wasting effort of interfacing 1-Wire components from node.js. Several evenings I read blog post, documentation and code just to find out what I am doing wrong - with no result. It still did not work. Owfs was not able to detect the devices nor could the linux kernel show me the information in the /sys/bus/w1/ directory. I was a bit frustrating. I was about to order new components because I thought my first experience in SMD soldering went wrong. Today I went home a little early and spent the afternoon in my lab - despite the good weather. I used a logic sniffer to see what's going on. And this journey will be recorded in this blog post.

Setup

 

To eliminate as many unknowns from the equation I decided to test using my BeagleBone Black which I am more used to than the SAMA5D4.

P4242641.JPG

On the BBB the P9-19 and 20 are the I2C-1 which I am going to use. The DS2482-100's SDA and SCL are 3.3 V capable so they can be connected directly. The Linux configuration does not have to be changed since the I2C-1 is enabled by default. Connect the DS24B33 EEPROM and I am done! Right? First test it with i2cdetect:

i2cdetect -y -r 1
     0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  a  b  c  d  e  f
00:          -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
10: -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
20: -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
30: -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
40: -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
50: -- -- -- -- UU UU UU UU -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
60: -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
70: -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --








The i2c to 1-wire bridge should show up at address 0x18.

NO! It isn't that easy. Reading more documentation I got a few things to try: pull-up resistors for SDA and SCL, kernel modules to load and much more. And nothing helped. So I disconnected everything and connected it again but out of frustration I did not disconnect the BBB contrary to a omnipresent warning that you never should connect anything to the pin headers while the board is running. And this time i2cdetect showed:

i2cdetect -y -r 1
     0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  a  b  c  d  e  f
00:          -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
10: -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 18 -- -- -- -- -- -- --
20: -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
30: -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
40: -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
50: -- -- -- -- UU UU UU UU -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
60: -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
70: -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --








Vola! At least the DS2482 was detected.

If the drivers were loaded correctly /sys/bus/w1/ would show something:

root@beaglebone:~# ls /sys/bus/w1/devices/
root@beaglebone:~#








Nothing!

Maybe the drivers are not loaded? Let's check:

root@beaglebone:~# lsmod
Module                  Size  Used by
g_multi                50407  2
libcomposite           15028  1 g_multi
mt7601Usta            641118  0
root@beaglebone:~#







To install them manually I tried:

root@beaglebone:~# modprobe ds1wm
root@beaglebone:~# modprobe ds2482
root@beaglebone:~# modprobe omap_hdq
root@beaglebone:~# modprobe w1_ds2433







Nothing changed. More frustration. Ok. Don't give up! What else can I try? Other software? Other hardware? Analyse what's going on on the bus?

I decided to do the later.

 

Logic Analyser

 

Fortunately I've bought a simple USB 8-channel logic analyzer a while ago. Never used it seriously, though. Looks like is time again to learn something new. I have taped the SDA and SDL pins to see if the DS2482 works correctly. I already could verify that it is listening on address 0x18.

1-reset.png

The first action on the bus is not a surprise - we see a write to address 0x18 (the address of the bus master) and then the byte 0xF0 which is the command "Device Reset". Good.

2-read.png

I had not expected to see the read from address 0x18, but reading the data sheet I found the recommendation to read the status register to verify if the reset was performed. After reset the read pointer points to the status register, therefore a simple read will result in the value of the status register. Here it is 0x18 or in binary 0b00011000. The status register bits are DIR-TSB-SBR-RST-LL-SD-PPD-1WB where:

Bit NameDescripiton
DIRBranch Direction Taken
TSBTriplet Second Bit
SBRSingle Bit Result
RSTDevice Reset: Reset has been performed.
LLLogic Level: Reads the logic state of the 1-Wire bus without initialising a communication. Updated on every read
SDShort Detected: Updated on every 1-Wire command.
PPDPresence Pulse Detect: Set when a presence detect pulse is seen by the bus master. Updated on every reset.
1WB1-Wire Busy: reports if the bus is currently in use.

The three most significant bits are for data transfer on the 1-wire bus, the others are real status bits. In this case the RST and LL are set which means the reset was performed and the 1-Wire bus is in "high" state.

3-status-register.png

Then the next command is written to the I2C bus: 0xE1 (Set Read Pointer) 0xF0 (Status Register). So the next command has to be a read. It resulted in 0x18, the same as above.

4-1-wire-reset.png

This time 0xB4 is written to the DS2482. This is the command for 1-Wire reset.

5-busy.png

The status register is read again, but this time the result is 0x19 so the least significant bit has changed to "high" which means the 1-Wire bus is busy. The host has to wait until the command has finished. The next read returned 0x18, again. The reset was completed but no presence pulse detected. That's why I could not access any 1-Wire devices. But why? I checked the whole circuit and found two really stupid mistakes: on the 1 wire eeprom (DS24B33) the ground pin was connected to the 3V3 pin and the pull-up resistor's bands had the colours red-red-brown which is 220 Ω. The data sheet says Rpullup should be between 0.3 and 2.2 kΩ. I looked for a red-red-red labelled resistor and installed it instead. This time I got this result:

6-presence.png

Finally there is the Presence Detect Pulse!  The rest of the communication read the 1-Wire ID form the DS24B33. Now the key identification works.

 

Conclusion

 

I used a quite advanced tool to find a set of very stupid mistakes which a more experienced person would have detected on the first sight or would not have made at all.

But on the Pro side I learned how to use a quite handy tool and a lot about I2C and 1-Wire bus. Since the competition is about learning this goal was meat. For the other goals I really have to catch up now.