This post documents a recent build of Android 4.4.2 KitKat on a fresh installation of openSUSE 13.2 x86_64 using the Element14-provided source code for RIoTboard. The build images were transferred to an SD card using Linux commands rather than using the MFGTool.

 

 

HARDWARE AND BUILD OS

 

Gateway NE56R12u Laptop running openSUSE 13.2 x86_64 DVD

     2.1 GHz Intel B950 dual-core Pentium processor

     8 GB physical RAM

     135 GB /home partition for build

     60 Mbs Internet connection

 

 

RESOURCES

 

RIoTboard User Manual Version 2.1 (RioTboard-User-Manual-V2.1.pdf)

Freescale Semiconductor Android User's Guide, Document Number : AUG, Rev. kk4.4.2_1.0.0-ga, 07/2014 (Android-Users-Guide.pdf)

https://source.android.com/source/initializing.html

Building Android from Source

Recompiling Android for use with Parallel RGB TFT LCD and Capacitive Touch Panel

RIoTboard - Android KitKat Build on Ubuntu 12.04.5/14.04.5 LTS

 

 

UPDATE openSUSE 13.2 x86_64

 

As openSUSE 13.2 has reached end-of-life, there will be no future updates via the regular repositories. If you did not update openSUSE 13.2 during installation, then use YaST or the system tray icon to do so now.

 

 

INSTALL NECESSARY PACKAGES

 

sudo zypper install git gpg2 flex bison gperf zip curl zlib-devel gcc-c++ glibc-devel-32bit ncurses-devel-32bit xproto-devel libx11-devel zlib-devel-32bit ccache Mesa-libGL-devel libxml2-2 libxml2-tools libxslt1 libxslt-tools unzip u-boot-tools libuuid-devel lzo-devel

 

 

INSTALL MAKE

 

Make is problematic in openSUSE 13.2 since the regular repositories only provide Version 4.0, but Android compilation requires Version 3.81 or 3.82. Since openSUSE 13.1 is the most recent release with Version 3.82, I used a copy of its make RPM. Here is the file source I used:

 

ftp://195.220.108.108/linux/opensuse/distribution/13.1/repo/oss/suse/x86_64/make-3.82-160.2.1.x86_64.rpm

 

Remove make Version 4.0 and install make 3.82:

 

sudo zypper remove make
sudo rpm -ivh make-3.82-160.2.1.x86_64.rpm

 

Once you have installed make Version 3.82, you will likely be prompted by the software updater in the system tray to update, so resist the urge to do so.

 

 

INSTALL JAVA 6 JDK

 

I had a copy of the Oracle Java 6 Update 43 JDK RPM tucked away in my archive, so I used it as the Java JDK. The “Recompiling Android” post above has a link to the more recent Oracle Java 6 Update 45 JDK RPM (remember to use the x64 version):

 

Java Archive Downloads - Java SE 6

 

Execute the .bin file to install the JDK:

 

mkdir ~/jtemp
mv jdk-6u43-linux-x64-rpm.bin ~/jtemp/
cd ~/jtemp
sudo chmod a+x jdk-6u43-linux-x64-rpm.bin
sudo ./jdk-6u43-linux-x64-rpm.bin

 

Log out and log back in.

 

As noted above, this procedure assumes a clean installation of openSUSE.  If your installation is not "fresh," then you may need some additional configuration.  The following page has information on Java configuration for recent openSUSE releases, including Version 13.2:

 

https://en.opensuse.org/SDB:Installing_Java

 

If you have a notion to install OpenJDK instead of Oracle Java JDK, you will be obliged to get packages from an outside repository as openSUSE 13.2 only provides packages for OpenJDK 1.7 and OpenJDK 1.8. An OpenJDK Version 1.6 RPM release for openSUSE 12.1 x86_64 does exist, and it may or may not be adequate (it's quite old):

 

https://www.rpmfind.net/linux/RPM/opensuse/12.1/x86_64/java-1_6_0-openjdk-devel-1.6.0.0_b22.1.10.4-1.2.x86_64.html

 

Android build scripts expect Oracle Java JDK, so using OpenJDK will require script modifications. See the Building Android from Source link above for more information.

 

 

UNPACK ANDROID SOURCE CODE

 

Copy the android-imx6-kk4.4.2-1.0.0-svn2705-20140818.tar.bz2 source code file to the home directory and decompress it:

 

cd ~
tar -xvf android-imx6-kk4.4.2-1.0.0-svn2705-20140818.tar.bz2

 

 

SELECT SD CARD OR EMMC BUILD

 

Open android-imx6-kk4.4.2-1.0.0/device/fsl/RIoTboard_6solo/BoardConfig.mk in your favorite editor and change

 

BUILD_TARGET_LOCATION ?= emmc

 

to

 

BUILD_TARGET_LOCATION ?= sdmmc

 

since we want to create an SD card image. Save the file.

 

 

BUILD ANDROID

 

cd ~/android-imx6-kk4.4.2-1.0.0
source build/envsetup.sh
lunch (Select RIoTboard_6solo-user)
make clean
time make -j4

 

The -j4 parameter in the make command is important as this reduced build times on my dual core laptop from around 7 hours to 3.75 hours. At the very least, you want as many jobs as you have CPU cores (-j2 in my case), but in my tests, increasing beyond that yields only marginal improvement.

 

 

CREATE A BOOTABLE SD CARD

 

The resulting image files to create an SD card for booting RIoTboard are located in ~/android-imx6-kk4.4.2-1.0.0/out/target/product/RIoTboard_6solo/:

 

boot.img

recovery.img

system.img

u-boot.bin

 

Per the Freescale Semiconductor Android User's Guide, a Linux script to generate the necessary partitions on a blank SD card to boot Android is located in ~/android-imx6-kk4.4.2-1.0.0/device/fsl/common/tools/fsl-sdcard-partition.sh.

 

Determine the device designation for the SD card in your system. You can use the lsblk command to do this by executing the command first without the SD card inserted, and then again with the SD card inserted.:

 

stmorgan@GATEWAY:~$ lsblk

NAME MAJ:MIN RM SIZE   RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT

sda    8:0   0  465.8G 0  disk 

sda1   8:1   0  100M   0  part 

sda2   8:2   0  288G   0  part 

sda3   8:3   0  1K     0  part 

sda5   8:5   0  169.8G 0  part /

sda6   8:6   0  7.9G   0  part [SWAP]

sr0   11:0   1  1024M  0  rom  


stmorgan@GATEWAY:~$ lsblk

NAME MAJ:MIN RM SIZE   RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT

sda    8:0   0  465.8G 0  disk 

sda1   8:1   0  100M   0  part 

sda2   8:2   0  288G   0  part 

sda3   8:3   0  1K     0  part 

sda5   8:5   0  169.8G 0  part /

sda6   8:6   0  7.9G   0  part [SWAP]

sdd    8:48  1  29.8G  0  disk

sdd1   8:49  1  29.8G  0  part /media/9016-4EF8

sr0   11:0   1  1024M  0  rom  

 

So I would use /dev/sdd for the SD card on my system. Note that this is not an empty SD card, as indicated by the presence of the mounted sdd1 partition.

 

In the following discussion, /dev/sdX will be used for the SD card, BUT YOU MUST REMEMBER TO CHANGE THE DEVICE DESIGNATION TO MATCH YOUR CARD IN ALL COMMANDS THAT FOLLOW.

 

Use your favorite method to remove all partitions from your SD card. If the partitioning tool used to remove partitions asks whether to use an MS-DOS or GPT scheme, use MS-DOS.

 

Execute the following commands after an SD card with no partitions has been inserted into the system:

 

cd ~/android-imx6-kk4.4.2-1.0.0/device/fsl/common/tools
sudo ./fsl-sdcard-partition.sh /dev/sdX

 

Eject the SD card from the system and reinsert it. This is a necessary step on my Gateway laptop, otherwise the following commands will not generate a usable image, although they give the outward appearance of doing what they are supposed to do.

 

cd ~/android-imx6-kk4.4.2-1.0.0/out/target/product/RIoTboard_6solo
sudo dd if=u-boot.bin of=/dev/sdX bs=1K skip=1 seek=1; sync
sudo dd if=boot.img of=/dev/sdX1; sync
sudo dd if=system.img of=/dev/sdX5; sync
sudo dd if=recovery.img of=/dev/sdX2; sync

 

The SD card can now be used to boot Android on the RIoTboard.

 

It's worth mentioning that there is a difference between the partition organization yielded by the above procedure versus that used in the Element14 pre-built SD card image. The Element14 image uses a partitioning scheme identical to that described in the Freescale Semiconductor Android User's Manual (presumably a byproduct of using MFGTool in a Windows environment), so the partitions are physically ordered as follows:

 

PARTITION TYPE/INDEX     NAME

N/A                      U-Boot Loader

Primary 1                Boot

Primary 2                Recovery

Logical 5 (Extended 3)   SYSTEM

Logical 6 (Extended 3)   CACHE

Logical 7 (Extended 3)   Device

Logical 8 (Extended 3)   Misc

Primary 4                DATA

 

The procedure used above reverses the Extended 3 and Primary 4 partitions, so the resulting physical order is as follows:

 

PARTITION TYPE/INDEX     NAME

N/A                      U-Boot Loader

Logical 1                Boot

Logical 2                Recovery

Logical 3                (small stub)

Logical 4                DATA

Logical 5                SYSTEM

Logical 6                CACHE

Logical 7                Device

Logical 8                Misc

 

For those too young to remember, the above references to Primary and Extended partitions go all the way back to Microsoft MS-DOS where you could have a maximum of either four Primary partitions on a (usually hard) disk drive or three Primary partitions and one Extended partition which could be populated with one or more Logical partitions. The procedure above just generates a sequence of Type 0x083 GNU/Linux partitions.

 

 

ENABLE 7-INCH LCD DISPLAY

 

The LCD8000-70T 7-inch LCD can be used with the resulting build by using the U-boot boot arguments specified in the LCD8000-70T Quick Start Guide.  NOTE:  You must have a connection to the J18 Serial Debug Port during boot in order to execute the following commands.

 

Reboot the RIoTboard, press a key when the “Hit any key to stop autoboot:” message appears and use the following commands:

 

MX6Solo RIoTboard U-Boot >setenv bootargs console=ttymxc1,115200 init=/init nosmp video=mxcfb0:dev=lcd,7inch_LCD,if=RGB565 video=mxcfb1:off fbmem=10M vmalloc=400M androidboot.console=ttymxc1 androidboot.hardware=freescale calibration
MX6Solo RIoTboard U-Boot >saveenv

 

Reboot the RIoTboard, and you should see the LCD in action. While the LCD works, the touchscreen does not.

 

 

CONCLUSION

 

Although build times are slightly longer than with Ubuntu, openSUSE 13.2 x86_64 can also be used to build Android KitKat on RIoTboard.  Thanks again to others who have made their build procedures available.