As you know, we've been busy adding new locations to our Atlas of Scientific Achievement above. We're now up to ~120 data points tracking everything from the invention of the first transistor to the formulation of the Big Bang theory. From the invention of the laser to the discovery of the earliest hominids in East Africa. It's been amazing watching the history of human discovery come alive before our very eyes, and we're thrilled to see that you're also getting into it, and are suggesting new locations for us to include.
(What's that? Haven't seen the Atlas yet? Well check it out! )
We thought we should share each week's suggestions with you here and see what you make of them. Which of the suggested entries below stand out to you and should be included in the Atlas? Are there any you think we should not include? Given that we're a community of electronic engineers, it's no surprise that a lot of our locations skew toward discoveries in electronics, like Jack Kilby demonstrating the first working integrated circuit. But we also want the Atlas to encompass all kinds of scientific discoveries-- electronic, physical, medical, biological, astronomical, and so on.
Our team is working hard to add your suggestions to the Atlas. So check out this week's suggestions and tell us which ones grab your attention and what you'd like to see added. And if you have any new suggestions, please add them here and we'll be sure to include them in next week's round-up. (Remember, if you include your name, we'll be sure to credit you in that location's pop-up text.)
Here are this week's suggestions.
|1||6/16/2015||Julius Richard Petri (May 31, 1852 – December 20, 1921) was a German microbiologist who is generally credited with inventing the Petri dish while working as assistant to pioneering bacteriologist Robert Koch.||Berlin, Germany|
|2||6/16/2015||1st digital computer invented by John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry 1941||Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa USA|
N 42 01.688 W 093 38.974
|3||6/16/2015||Guglielmo Marconi was born here||Bologna, Italy|
|4||6/16/2015||The Nuclear Submarine. As The Historic Naval Ships Association points out, before the U.S.S. Nautilus hit the water in 1954 submarines were really submersibles; boats that could go underwater but not for very long. The Nautilus, built in Groton, CT. by the Electric Boat Company and running on nuclear power, could stay underwater for months at a time because it created its own power. Part publicity stunt, part "˜hope you're watching, Russia,' the Nautilus even took a trip under the North Pole ice. All of these facts have been drilled into the heads of bored Connecticut middle schoolers being forced to visit the docked ship on class trips.||Groton, Connecticut. N 41 20.862 W 72 4.863|
|5||6/17/2015||In 1923, De la Cierva's first successful Autogiro was flown in Spain .|
Primer vuelo del Autogiro de Juan de la Cierva. Realizó un vuelo entre la base aérea de Getafe y la base aérea de Cuatro Vientos
|6||6/17/2015||Ictineo II was a pioneering submarine launched in 1864 by engineer Narcís Monturiol i Estarriol of Catalonia, Spain and was the first air independent and combustion powered submarine and was the first submarine to overcome the basic problems of machine powered underwater navigation.||41.375130, 2.187405|
|7||6/17/2015||Multistage rocket - Conrad Haas/Konrad Haas|
Between 1529 and 1556, he wrote a book in German language in which he described rocket technology, involving the combination of fireworks and weapons technologies. This manuscript was discovered in 1961, in the Sibiu public records (Sibiu public records Varia II 374).
Diagram of multi-staged rocket by Conrad Haas
In this work Haas dealt with the technical details of rocket construction, explaining the working principles of a rocket. He described many rocket types, including the multi-stage rocket, bundled rockets, and the idea of modern spacecraft. His work also dealt with the theory of motion of multi-stage rockets, different fuel mixtures using liquid fuel, and introduced delta-shape fins and bell-shaped nozzles.
In the last paragraph of his chapter on the military use of rockets, he wrote (translated):
"But my advice is for more peace and no war, leaving the rifles calmly in storage, so the bullet is not fired, the gunpowder is not burned or wet, so the prince keeps his money, the arsenal master his life; that is the advice Conrad Haas gives."
|Kempel Barracks - Sibiu Arsenal. |
Piata Armelor Sibiu, Romania
Latitude: 45.795762 | Longitude: 24.145395
|8||6/17/2015||Photonic crystal||Bell Communications Research, Navesink Research Center, Red Bank, New Jersey 07701, USA|
Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA
|9||6/17/2015||Electric generator||29, Avenue des Ternes, 17e arrondissement, 75008 Paris, France|
|10||6/17/2015||Saxophone||rue Myrha, 18e arrondissement, 75018 Paris,|
|11||6/17/2015||The speech of Albert 1st, King of of the Belgians, held in Seraing on October 1st, 1927, is at the origin of the Belgian National Fund for Scientific Research (F.R.S.-FNRS)||N 50.603095; E 5.551774|
|12||6/17/2015||Illusion of a moving image by Joseph Plateau||Université de Liège|
Place du 20 Août, 7
|13||6/17/2015||World Wide Web invented by Robert Cailliau and Sir Tim Berners-Lee.||Route de Meyrin 385|
|14||6/17/2015||Submarines were first built by Dutch inventor Cornelius van Drebel in the early 17th century, but it was not until 150 years later that they were first used in naval combat. David Bushnell, an American inventor, began building underwater mines while a student at Yale University. Deciding that a submarine would be the best means of delivering his mines in warfare, he built an eight-foot-long wooden submersible that was christened the Turtle for its shape. Large enough to accommodate one operator, the submarine was entirely hand-powered. Lead ballast kept the craft balanced.|
Donated to the Patriot cause after the outbreak of war with Britain in 1775, Ezra Lee piloted the craft unnoticed out to the 64-gun HMS Eagle in New York Harbor on September 7, 1776. As Lee worked to anchor a time bomb to the hull, he could see British seamen on the deck above, but they failed to notice the strange craft below the surface. Lee had almost secured the bomb when his boring tools failed to penetrate a layer of iron sheathing. He retreated, and the bomb exploded nearby, causing no harm to either the Eagle or the Turtle.
During the next week, the Turtle made several more attempts to sink British ships on the Hudson River, but each time it failed, owing to the operator’s lack of skill. Only Bushnell was really able to competently execute the submarine’s complicated functions, but because of his physical frailty he was unable to pilot the Turtle in any of its combat missions. During the Battle of Fort Lee, the Turtle was lost when the American sloop transporting it was sunk by the British.
Despite the failures of the Turtle, General George Washington gave Bushnell a commission as an Army engineer, and the drifting mines he constructed destroyed the British frigate Cereberus and wreaked havoc against other British ships. After the war, he became commander of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers stationed at West Point.
|Yale Connecticut USA|
|15||6/17/2015||Praline (Belgian praline) invented by Frédéric Neuhaus||Galerie de la Reine 25-27|
|16||6/17/2015||Eli Whitney (December 8, 1765 – January 8, 1825) was an American inventor best known for inventing the cotton gin. This was one of the key inventions of the Industrial Revolution and shaped the economy of the Antebellum South. Whitney's invention made upland short cotton into a profitable crop, which strengthened the economic foundation of slavery in the United States. Despite the social and economic impact of his invention, Whitney lost many profits in legal battles over patent infringement for the cotton gin. Thereafter, he turned his attention into securing contracts with the government in the manufacture of muskets for the newly formed United States Army. He continued making arms and inventing until his death in 1825.||Studied at Yale in new haven Connecticut USA|
|17||6/17/2015||Birthplace of Fiber Optic cabling|
(https://en.wikipedia.org/?title=Charles_K._Kao / https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard_Telecommunication_Laboratories)
|Harlow, Essex, UK|
The US Interstate Highway System is listed as the largest public works project (about 47,000 miles) ever undertaken in the history of mankind and the technique of Asphalt Pavement over a special mix of concrete was invented here in Arkansas on what was to be called the Dollarway Road because the cost, even including the 9 feet of compacted gravel on each side (now called road shoulders) per linear foot was $1.00 The Federal Government, looking for smooth roads to connect the whole country heard about this very smooth road surface in Arkansas that motorist from all across the country and even from around the world were shipping their cars by rail to drive on so after some investigation of it, copied what was invented here, and it has spread throughout the world. The beginning of our modern day roads started with this 9 foot wide 24 miles long smooth asphalt over concrete with 9ft compacted gravel passing lanes on each side. *The whole thing started with a bicycle club in Little Rock asking the governor for smoother roads to ride on.*
|Pine Bluff - Redfield, Arkansas USA|
In 1913 the proposed 14 miles of newly invented road surface that began in Pine Bluff, Arkansas grew to 24 miles long. You could drive wide open, 24mph, here and some citizens petitioned the State to stop it because man was never supposed to go that fast.
Some un-retouched, un-repaired surfaces of this original 1913 road can be found here at Dollarway Road Park in Redfield, AR. USA
N 34° 26.009 W 092° 10.861
|19||6/18/2015||Smallpox Vaccine||Dr Jenner's House|
Church Lane, Berkeley GL13 9BN, United Kingdom
|20||6/18/2015||Edwin Beard Budding's lawn mower and adjustable spanner||Phoenix Works, Stroud, Gloucestershire GL5 2BU|
|21||6/18/2015||Isambard Kingdom Brunel|
Designed Bristol Temple Meads station, Clifton Suspension Bridge, the SS Great Britan... amongst other things in the South West of England...
Take your pick!
|Bristol, United Kingdom:|
Temple Meads station @ Temple Meads Railway Station, Station Approach, Bristol BS1 6QF
Clifton Suspension Bridge @ Bridgemaster's Office, Bridge Road, Bristol, North Somerset BS8 3PA
SS Great Britain @ Great Western Dockyard, Gas Ferry Rd, Bristol BS1 6TY
|22||6/19/2015||The Pap Smear Test, the most successful cancer screening technique in history, designed to identify abnormal cells to diagnose cervical cancer. It was named after its inventor, Dr. George Nicholas Papanicolaou. Discovered in 1928.||Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA|
|23||6/19/2015||Fermi 1 was the first commercial Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor. Criticality was achieved in August 1963. It's design capacity was 430 MWth.||6400 N. Dixie Hwy., Newport, MI, 48166, USA|
|24||6/20/2015||Reiskrater Museum in Nordlingen, Germany where a piece of a moon rock was donated by NASA. Astronauts are shown on the moon. This crater was used by NASA Astronauts to practice walking on he moon.|
We are visiting Europe from Canton, Ohio and visited this Museum on our two month by ourselves adventure. We have geocached in the Nederlnds, France, Belgium, Germany, Poland, Czech Republic, and Austria. It was one of our adventures to qualify for GC3W2RP, GC4Y2KG, and GC4EGJ6. We now qualify for GC3W2RP but will probably take our trip to Israel next year to qualify for the other two. Just to brag a little, we have completed the Cache Across America, GC12E08. TheView (Ed and Nancy)
|25||6/21/2015||The invention of the jet boat:|
In the early 1950s, when Sir William Hamilton began experimenting with marine jets, he followed the lead of the most successful invention to date, the American Hanley Hydrojet. Using a round centrifugal water pump that drew in the water and expelled it through a steer able nozzle under the boat, he was able to achieve an encouraging but unspectacular speed of 11 mile per hour.
In 1954, a slight modification to expel the jet stream above the waterline proved the turning point in marine jet propulsion, increasing speed to 17mph and eliminating all underwater appendages. Waterjet propulsion was at last truly successful and the Hamilton Waterjet was born.
|Middleton, Christchurch, New Zealand|
|26||6/23/2015||Development of the modern jetboat by Sir Charles William "Bill" Feilden Hamilton.||Fairlie, South Island, New Zealand|
|27||6/23/2015||X Ray CT Tomography machine developed by Sir Godfrey Hounsfield and team.||Latitude. 51.520998000000000000. Longitude. -0.416057200000068400|
EMI Research Labs hayes middlesex UK
|28||6/28/2015||Development of the first nuclear rocket engine.|| 36°48'20.95"N|
NRDS Nuclear rocket development site, Jackass flats, Nevada on the Nevada test site