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So, What Have You Got?

If you missed the introduction to this series, you will be needing the Raspberry Pi 2 GPS Kit unless you are sufficiently equipped with similar parts or hardware. Ten skilful people were chosen from just over four hundred to receive one of the kits from us at element14 and they may well have other ideas for the kit than for Geocaching, which is great! I look forward to seeing what you build - but there may be some, including those whom have bought the kit, that want to use it for Geocaching and it's those people whom this build-along is for.


I want your input, feedback and comments. If you have any problems while building along I want to know about it and we shall work on a solution. It is also possible that I am not doing this build in the best way or you have an idea! Great, I would love to hear about it, so please add a comment below the blog. Throughout this blog there may be times where I have not gone into detail, but if you look carefully I have embedded hyperlinks into the words or phrases. Usually you can click these for more detailed information about what I am talking about.


So have you got the kit yet, or an equivalent? Yes? Good.


Pre-Flight Checks

Preliminary to using the hardware, there is a certain environment to set-up and a few pieces for connectivity that you are going to need to be able to set-up the Raspberry Pi 2, these are as follows:



A few of these items are optional, but it can be beneficial to you if you are able to have all of them together. In particular I would suggest that having a secondary computer or a laptop with an SDCard/microSD Card reader (or at least a microSD to SDCard adaptor for equivalent reader) is almost compulsory. This is because it is far easier to be able to recover from any problems that you may encounter and rebuild or backup your SDCard for the Raspberry Pi to/from a system that you know works which is connected to the internet.


The reason why I state that connecting to the screen and using a keyboard and mouse is optional, is because if you have a laptop or a computer connected to the same local network (before connecting to the global internet) it is possible to connect over the network to the Raspberry Pi using SSH.


For the matter of simplicity I am going to assume that you are connecting the Raspberry Pi 2Raspberry Pi 2 to a screen with a keyboard and mouse and that you have a secondary computer or laptop with the ability to read the microSD card.


Connect it up!

When connecting together any hardware, make sure that it is turned off and not connected to a power source. This may come across as condescending but you would be surprised just at how many times I have with an absent mind dis/connected or un/plugged something in/out only to realise that I have fried the components because there was power going through the circuit.


You can go ahead and connect together all of the accessories with the Raspberry Pi 2, here is a simple step by step which might cover anything you may trip up with:


  • Un-box and unwrap the Pi 2 and its accessories, the microSD card, etc from their packaging
  • Slide the Pi 2 Shim onto the Raspberry Pi 2 GPIO (General Purpose Input/Output) pins with the pins of the shim sticking out from the Pi, making sure it has a snug fit connecting with the pins.
    • This should be such that the pins of the shim are coming up and out of the shim add-on board and bending outwards away from the Pi. Rather than down and outwards.
  • Plug the GPS add-on into the microstack board, then connect the microstack board to the Pi
    • If you read the silkscreen (white writing) on the PCB (printed circuit board) of the shim and compare it with the microstack board, you can work out the orientation to connect it up. You can also cross-reference this with the Pi 2 pinout.
    • The microstack board connects to the Pi with the microstack board orientated vertically, and towards the end of the Pi where the microSD card is to be pushed in.
  • Sit the PiFace Control & Display 2 on top of the GPIO pins, feel free to use it to push the shim further down the Pi 2 GPIO pins
  • You can connect the U.FL to SMA adaptor cable onto the the GPS add-on board and the adaptor pigtail cable to the GPS antenna.
    • The antenna is for boosting the signal strength of the GPS, you can unfurl the cable and the end should be magnetic, it works best out or next to a window. Or outside entirely
    • If you are outside, you may not need the external antenna, but it does help
  • Push in the microSD card
    • It should already be setup with NOOBS, we will need to choose an operating system
  • Connect the USB mouse and keyboard (if you are using them, else happily use SSH, if you want to know how then let me know in the comments)
  • Connect a cable to let you use a monitor or television (as outlined in the extra parts above, but feel free to ignore if you are connecting via SSH)


Lastly, after making sure that everything is securely connected, plug in the 5 volt 2 ampere power supply to the Raspberry Pi 2 (not the microstack board) and ensure everything is switched on and to the correct input/channel and you should be good to go. It should look a little like this when connected together:




Configuring the Operating System

Your microSD card is already setup for you with NOOBS. When you first power on your Raspberry Pi a window will appear with a list of different Operating Systems (OSs) that you can install. If you know what you are doing and there is a particular one that you wish to use then go ahead, however for the purpose of what we are doing you should use Raspbian which is a version of Linux, tick the box next to where it says Raspbian and click on Install. It will then run through its installation process.


When the installation has completed, the Raspberry Pi configuration menu will load (this is raspi-config). Here you are able to set the time/date for your region, enable add-ons such as the Raspberry Pi camera board, etc. There are a few steps which you should do:


  • Select '1' and 'Expand Filesystem'
  • If you want to, select '2' and change the user password. The default password is 'raspberry'
  • Choose '3' and select to boot to the 'Desktop', though later we may want to change this to 'command line' to save resources.
  • Choose 8 and then go through the following options:
    • A4 and enable SSH
    • Choose A6 and A7 to enable SPI and I2C (SPI is important to be able to use the PiFace Control & Display 2)
    • A8 disable shell and kernel messages on the serial connection


Personally I also choose '7' and overclock my Pi 2 to 1000Mhz 'Pi 2' option but this is not crucially necessary.


When you are done, choose 'Finish'. Your Pi should now ask if you want to restart, and yes, you do.


Updating the Operating System (and a bit about Linux)

If you have not already done so, log in to the terminal on your Raspberry Pi (or open a terminal window, from here on I may assume that your pi starts into a terminal, just substitute to opening the terminal application when you're in the desktop) using the username 'pi' and the password 'raspberry' (unless you changed the password in the previous step, or know what you are doing with Linux and created your own username, etc.).


Making sure that your Pi is connected to the internet via the Ethernet cable (if you are using WiFi I am going to assume that you know what you are doing and have configured it and that it works for you) you should run the following commands, pressing 'enter' after each line (it is case sensitive):


sudo apt-get update

sudo apt-get upgrade -y

sudo apt-get dist-upgrade -y

sudo rpi-update

sudo reboot


So what we are doing here, is updating the software and firmware currently installed in Raspbian on the Raspberry Pi by elevating our permissions (from userspace) to the privileged super user, administrator, root space. Then we are running an application called 'apt-get' and then passing it a command with the next word. If you want to learn more about apt-get then you can run:


man apt-get


It will tell you all about it, typically you can type 'man' before most commands and it will tell you all about it. I should also add, that if you want to quit out of most things that are running, you can use usually use one or more of the following combinations (I warned you this may seem a bit condescending):


type 'q'

Key combination: ctrl and z

Key combination: ctrl and q

Key combination: ctrl and c


Installing and Configuring the Software we Need

Once the Pi has rebooted, you will need to log in again. Upon doing so, we can now install the software that we need to get information from the GPS device, which if you have had powered up and connected all of this time, you may or may not have noticed a flashing red LED on it. Enter the following commands to install the required software for the microstack, GPS and the Control & Display add-on board, along with ensuring we have Python3:


sudo apt-get install python3-microstacknode gpsd gpsd-clients python-gps python3-pifacecad python3 unzip


You may get some warnings about the software already being installed, you can ignore them. There is a great deal of Linux software available for viewing your position with a GPS device, what we are installing here is the ability to code our own software to receive information from the GPS device and interface with the buttons and display on the add-on board. If you are really enthusiastic you can find the microstack source code on github.


Now we should configure gpsd and we will restart the Pi again. So run:


sudo dpkg-reconfigure gpsd


Which will then bring up some prompts:


  • Choose 'yes' to start gpsd automatically
  • Choose 'no' to handling USB gps receivers automatically (unless you are playing around with one, obviously, but we are not here)
  • When asked 'Device the GPS receiver is attached to' enter (case sensitive):


  • You can accept the defaults for other options.
  • You may need to restart the Pi with 'sudo reboot' at this point (or you could restart the gpsd service)


Now we should check to see if the GPS device is working, remember when you used raspi-config to disable the output on the serial port? That was important, because the microstack GPS add-on uses that to communicate its co-ordinate data which is handled in Linux as /dev/ttyAMA0. Even though the GPS add-on is in the SPI section of the microstack board, it does not even use SPI. This is a little frustrating because it stops us from using SPI add-ons in the microstack when we should really be able to use them, but the way the GPS add-on operates means that we can use it in conjunction with an SPI add-on such as the PiFace Control & Display 2.


Testing the GPS Add-on

How we check if the GPS add-on is working will depend greatly on whether you have a signal lock or not. Hopefully by now you will have had the Pi connected to power with the add-ons all plugged in. If the GPS has a lock then you should have a flashing red LED, this is synchronised with the clock of the timing signal received from the satellites. Now we can run a command to check what information we have.


If gpsd has been configured correctly, then we can run:


cgps -s


Which will produce an output that looks like this:



Though your output might have the correct characters as a border. What we have here is a '3D Fix' along with the details we would expect such as longitude and latitude. However, what can we do if it says "NO FIX" ? How do we know if the GPS add on is working at all?


The simplest way is to check if /dev/ttyAMA0 is receiving any data at all. There is a command in Linux called 'cat' which we can use to view the contents of files, I shall not go into detail of why, but we can also use cat on devices. So when we run:


cat /dev/ttyAMA0


You should see the serial output from the microstack add-on which looks like this (press CTRL and C to stop the scrolling data):















Your output would be different if you do not have a GPS fix. There is detailed information in this feed which we can digest if we want to, what I am interested in is where it says 'ANTSTATUS=OK' means that we have the external antenna attached and it is working (pretty neat) else it would say 'ANTSTATUS=OPEN'. The rest I can ignore for now.


Testing the PiFace CAD add-on

The PiFace add-on comes with example Python scripts which we can just run to see if it is capable of outputting anything to its screen. The GPS add-on also has example python scripts, but I felt that the commands I suggested are more useful to work out how it operates.


To run the example script for the PiFace just enter the following at the terminal:


python3 /usr/share/doc/python3-pifacecad/examples/


You should now see the IP address of the Pi on the screen along with the temperature and processor usage. Pretty straightforward. The buttons do not currently do anything as they are not programmed to. You can find more examples if you type:


ls /usr/share/doc/python3-pifacecad/examples/


Though they are compressed by default (I will give you a hint, you may need gunzip to extract them). For the enthusiastic, up to date code is stored on the github for the project.


Whoops! Hang On..

If you are having any problems at this point then there are some simple diagnostic checks you should make first:


  • Start from the beginning and make sure everything is disconnected
    • Push in just the microSD card and the cable for the screen/monitor then connect power with nothing else. Does the Pi boot?
      • If it does not, or the red and green LEDs on your Pi are constantly lit. You need to re-image your SD Card to Raspbian
    • If it boots, but it does not get you to a login prompt
      • Re-image your SDCard to Raspbian, there is probably a recoverable problem with Linux, but we will just keep it simple
  • If you receive errors when trying to apt-get update, upgrade, or install then check with another device/laptop/your phone that your internet connection is working. That your network cable is OK and if you have setup WiFi that it is connected and works.
    • A simple check is to run 'ping' at the terminal and see if you get a response
    • Running 'sudo ifconfig' can also check if your adapter (eth0 or wlan0 typically) has an IP address
    • Make sure you are not behind a proxy, if you are setting it up at work, university or school.
  • If the GPS add-on is not getting a fix, or you are not getting anything from the commands I suggested
    • Check to make sure that the metal circles on the shim are making a connection around the pins, it does get a bit wobbly.
    • Make sure you have installed the correct packages
    • Go outside, or put the external antenna out of the window (making sure it is secure)
      • Or just leave the Pi on for a long time, it will get a fix eventually.
  • If the PiFace add-on does not display anything
    • Make sure that it is correctly aligned on the GPIO pins
    • Try connecting it to the Pi without the shim and see if it works then, ensure that the PiFace is fully pressed down onto the pins


If you are still having problems, post a comment below giving as much detail as you can!


Can we go Geocaching Yet?

To start this project we are going to use code from callum.ds's work (he has some other neat blogs you should really check out that introduces other hardware we have on the Community). The full blog post is available here if you would like to read it, it gives good insight into the decisions for the code we are about to use and what I intend on developing upon further. For now though, all we are going to do is download the file attached to this blog post, extract them and run the code.


On the Raspberry Pi, in the desktop environment open a web browser and download the .zip file. Using 'File Manager' in the 'Accessories' menu, copy the file from the downloads folder into the the /home/pi folder (by default it may download to /home/pi/downloads).


Now open up a terminal (unless you are already in one) and run the following commands:


cd ~/


sudo cp ./ /etc/init.d/

sudo chmod +x /etc/init.d/

sudo update-rc.d defaults 99

Callum's Geocaching software looks at a text file for a list of co-ordinates as longitude and latitude. You will need to edit this file with a text editor and input your own co-ordinates to the geocaches you want to find or locations you want to be pointed towards. Now to edit geocaches.txt, either use your terminal text editor of choice (I prefer to use vim), or open 'Text Editor' from the 'Accessories' menu and navigate to /home/pi/microstack_geocache


Just to test the co-ordinates, which are listed in longitude and latitude, I picked some locations at random on Google Maps and saved them into geocaches.txt:






That should be everything, when you restart your Raspberry Pi the code should automatically run and you will be told the distance towards the caches listed in geocaches.txt in /home/pi/microstack_geocache ! You can use the 'flick' or 'nav' switch to choose between the different caches in your text list.



In Memoriam

There is still work to be done on this project. So far we have identified that we are able to get GPS data, compare it against a destination and estimate the distance between the two. However, this is not entirely ideal but it is a start with a prototype.


I have attached to this blog post, reference documentation for the protocol that the GPS add on uses along with the pin-out of the board itself. Attached is also the quick reference guide for the PiFace Control & Display 2 board. From these we can see that it should be possible to advance this project further with greater intuition, and it just raises questions:


  • So we currently have our destination plotted out, but is the display really suitable for it?
  • Is there more we can do with it to determine our heading to find our geocaches?
  • Can we put more intelligence into the code so we are not looking at a static file, but rather from an API or similar?
  • How could we enhance the project with internet connectivity?
  • The code needs work
    • The mathematics does not account for the curvature of the earth
    • It relies heavily on text files, which often need to be cleared manually before the code works


These are just a few of the questions that I hope to address in further blog posts, do let me know your thoughts by commenting on the blog!1


Geocaching Build

Posted by dmedlow Jul 20, 2015

Being selected for the geocaching build is fairly awesome.

It does raise the challenge of exactly what to build.

My partner is a geocaching fanatic - but is often cursing at the handheld dedicated GPS unit she uses.

Often it fails to provide a good position fix, its hard to download web based cache location, the UI is rubbish and the batteries drain faster than you can say 'do we have any more batteries'.


My initial thoughts are to use the Pi + GPS (obviously) combined with one of the very scrumptious 4DSystems touch-sensitive displays and a PAN board to get internet access from a mobile, add a camera to this to allow the user to take photos for earth caches and other requirements where imagery is required.


I'll mull over these challenges and solicit some customer input....



What is it about Nikola Tesla that inspires engineers around the world?


The slights he suffered at the hands of his close-minded, condescending boss, Thomas Edison, who refused to see the potential of alternating current? The breathtaking scope of his altruism, as evidenced by his decision to tear-up his patent agreement on AC current to save his employer, George Westinghouse, from financial ruin? (A decision which in all likelihood prevented him from becoming the world's first billionaire.) His pride, which led him to work as a ditch digger rather than suffer the continuing insults of his employer? His sheer brilliance, evidenced by his epiphany while walking in the park in Budapest that an induction motor could be designed based on rotating magnetic fields? Or the fact that schoolchildren continue to memorize facts about Thomas Edison while educators routinely ignore Tesla?


While I applaud Elon Musk's naming his company in honor of the great inventor, I think this further obscures Nikola Tesla in popular culture. He should occupy the same place in the scientific pantheon as Albert Einstein. His pride, altruism, the scope of his genius, and the fact that he spent so much of his early career trying to convince people less clever than himself what should be done all mark him as a real engineer's engineer. If Tesla were alive today, he would be reading Dilbert comics and smiling at the pointy-headed boss.


What do you think? Is Nikola Tesla science's greatest unsung hero?

Silicon Valley folklore holds that William Shockley, a brilliant physicist who headed up Bell Labs solid-state group after World War II, could never accept that his employees, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain, received credit for discovering the property of electrical transistence instead of him. Bell Labs famously arranged photo-ops like the one below to suggest that Shockley, seated at the microscope, was as closely involved in the discovery of the transistor as Bardeen and Brattain.



The collegiality of the group quickly broke down, and Shockley went on the found the short-lived Shockley Semiconductors, where his personality quirks alienated many of his employees.


"Shockley was very quick mentally," says Conyers Herring, another Bell scientist who worked with him. "He was always a jump ahead of me, and it was difficult to persuade him of anything. He realized his own superiority. He always felt his own way of looking at things was better than anyone else's. Nine times out of 10 it was, but the 10th time got him in trouble because he didn't study the literature sufficiently carefully or didn't accept ideas from people who didn't explain themselves well enough to him."


Despite this, there is a strong case to be made for the idea that, were it not for Shockley's penetrating insights into the behavior of solid state surfaces, Bardeen and Brattain would never have made their famous discovery. It was Shockley who first pointed them to explore the activity of electronics at the boundary of p- and n-layers. And it was Bardeen who worked out the theoretical framework which led to Bardeen and Brattain's laboratory results about transistence. Shockley even predicted the nature of electronic transistence years before its discovery based upon his theoretical understanding of quantum behavior at the juncture of oppositely-charged surfaces.


It's easy to criticize William Shockley for this personal shortcomings and terrible people skills. But has history been too quick to underplay the role he played in the discovery of the transistor, the component upon which the entire Information Age is based?


Tell us what you think in the comments below!

History teaches that Wilbur and Orville Wright successfully performed the first motorized human flight on December 17, 1903.

wright brothers flight


But were they the first to do so?


For years, there has been an alternative theory about a little-known inventor in New Zealand named Richard Pearse. Proponents of Pearse hold that he successfully covered about 350 yards in his motorized airplane on March 31, 1902-- about a year and a half before the Wright brothers' famous experiments at Kitty Hawk.



Evidence to corroborate Pearse's accomplishments remain vague. There were only a handful of eyewitness accounts, and Pearse, himself, did not document his experiments very well. (Wikipedia accounts of Pearse are rife with "citation needed" tags.) Despite this, Pearse is recognized throughout New Zealand and Australia as one of true pioneers of early flight-- and as the true discoverer of powered flight by many. The national government of New Zealand has even celebrating his accomplishments by erecting state monuments and postage stamps in his honor.




Have we been miscrediting the Wright brothers for inventing human powered flight all this time while forgetting about the true inventor of flight, Richard Pearse?

Tell us what you think in the comments below.


Thanks to mcb1 for pointing this out.

Congratulations from element14 !


Out of an incredible 400+ entries requesting the Raspberry Pi 2 GPS kit, ten people from across the globe presented themselves with an application putting forward projects and enthusiasm abound that have earned themselves the kit to build along with myself and element14:


Dennis MedlowBob Alexander
Steven FordCharles Mao
Petrache ValentinBruno Giffard
Ovidiu-Florin BogdanJason Nuckols
Mark FinkRobert Reese

Your kits will be sent out over the next 4 weeks and should hopefully arrive within that time. When you receive your kits, we would love to see your blogs, discussions, reactions and posts about your build here on the Community, across social media and even YouTube if you're feeling adventurous in the world of video!


While you're waiting for your kits, you can still find yourself an element14 trackable while you're geocaching and don't forget to visit or add to the Atlas of Scientific Achievement! If you didn't win, you can still buy the kit and build along with us (if you're wondering, the additional small board in the photo' is an accelerometer, just one of the changes you could make to the kit!).20150716_201121.jpg


Let everyone know what you intend to build with your Pi 2 GPS Kit below, if you're not sure or you've changed your mind then you can always build along with me as I encounter trials and tribulations for a portable geocaching device with the Raspberry Pi 2 - the next blog of which should be live next week!


Happy hacking!

Hi Everyone.


Here are the newest suggestions. Which of the suggested entries below stand out to you and should be included in the Atlas? Are there any you think we should not include? Given that we're a community of electronic engineers, it's no surprise that a lot of our locations skew toward discoveries in electronics, like Jack Kilby demonstrating the first working integrated circuit. But we also want the Atlas to encompass all kinds of scientific discoveries-- electronic, physical, medical, biological, astronomical, and so on.


Our team is working hard to add your suggestions to the Atlas. So check out this week's suggestions and tell us which ones grab your attention and what you'd like to see added. And if you have any new suggestions, please add them here and we'll be sure to include them in next week's round-up. (Remember, if you include your name, we'll be sure to credit you in that location's pop-up text.)


Here are this week's suggestions:


1Discovery of Penicillin by   Sir Alexander FlemingSt Mary's Hospital, Praed Street, Paddington, London W2   1NY, United
2The laboratory was founded   during World War II as a secret, centralized facility to coordinate the   scientific research of the Manhattan Project, the Allied project to develop   the first nuclear weapons. It continues to operate as one of two laboratories   in the United States where classified work toward the design of nuclear   weapons is undertaken.Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico,   USA
3The discovery of the first   T-Rex skeletonHell Creek, Montana, USA
4Blériot's Cross-Channel   Flight
    Early in the morning of July 25th, 1909, Louis Blériot (1872-1936) crossed   the English Channel, a distance of 22 statute miles (36.6 km) from Les   Barraques (near Calais) to Dover.
Here are the coordinates of the start point of this   aeronautic achieveme
5Birthplace of Johannes   Kepler48.750258, 8.870649
61960 founding of modern   genetic engineering, discovery of restriction enzymes by Werner Arber at the   Biozentrum altered genetic engineering prevail because now DNA fragments   could be specifically cut and inserted into other organisms.(source:; der Universität Basel
    Klingelbergstrasse 70
    4056 Basel
7John Deere invented the   first Steel Plow in Grand Detour Illinois8334 S. Clinton St. - Grand Detour - Dixon, IL 61021 - USA
8The first fossil remains Of   the Mosasaur were discovered here in 1764.n50 49.348 e005 41.206 Maastricht, The Netherlands
9First Sustained Powered   FlightCanterbury, South Island, New Zealand
101879 - Ritty's Incorruptible   Cashier
    The cash register is a device for calculating and recording sales   transactions. When a transaction was completed, the first cash registers used   a bell that rang and the amount was noted on a large dial on the front of the   machine. During each sale, a paper tape was punched with holes so that the   merchant could keep track of sales. Known as the "Incorruptible   Cashier", the mechanical cash register was invented and patented in 1879   by James Ritty of Dayton, Ohio. John H. Patterson bought Ritty's patent and   his cash register company in 1884.
39° 45′ 34″ N, 84° 11′ 30″ W
    Dayton, Ohio, United States of America
111903 - Invention of the   Aeroplane
    A fixed-wing aircraft, or airplane, is a heavier-than-air craft whose lift   is generated by air pressure differential between the upper and lower wing   surfaces. The Wright brothers, Wilbur and Orville Wright of Dayton, Ohio,   made the first powered and sustained airplane flights under control of the   pilot in the Wright Flyer I on December 17, 1903 in Kitty Hawk, North   Carolina.
    In the two years afterward, they developed their flying machine into the   world's first practical fixed-wing aircraft. By October 1905, the Wright   Flyer III was capable and proven to circle in the air 30 times in 39 minutes   for a total distance of 24.5 miles.
    The brothers' fundamental breakthrough was their invention of   "three-axis control", which enabled the pilot to steer the aircraft   effectively and to maintain its equilibrium. This required method has become   standard on all fixed-wing aircraft.
    From the beginning of their aeronautical work, the Wright brothers focused   on unlocking the secrets of control to conquer "the flying   problem," rather than on developing more powerful engines as some other   experimenters did. Charles Edward Taylor built the first aircraft engine and   was a vital contributor of mechanical aspects in the building and maintaining   of early Wright engines and airplanes.
    Although there were many earlier attempts at heavier-than-air powered   flight, some of which achieved successful short hops, and disputed earlier   claims of sustained flight, the Wright brothers are officially credited by   the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, the international record-setting   body for aeronautics and astronautics, as achieving "the first sustained   and controlled heavier-than-air powered flight". In addition, U.S.   patent number #821393 for the airplane, was filed by Orville Wright on March   23, 1903 and was issued in May 1906.
The Airplane was invented in Dayton, Ohio, United States   of America
12Invention of Electric   Starter - 1911
    In 1911, Charles F. Kettering invented and filed for U.S. Patent 1,150,523   for the first useful electric starter, adapted from a cash register motor.   The starters were first installed by Cadillac on production models in   1912.
Edward Andrew Deed's Barn which is located in what is now   Kettering,
13The invention of the first   telescope.
    Hans Lippershey was born in Wesel, in western Germany, in 1570. He settled   in Middelburg, the capital of the province of Zeeland in the Netherlands, in   1594. During that time he became a master lens grinder and spectacle maker   and established a shop.
    Hans Lippershey is known for the earliest written record of a refracting   telescope.
    Lippershey applied, to the States General of the Netherlands on 2 October   1608, for a patent for his instrument "for seeing things far away as if   they were nearby".
Blauwedijk, Middelburg, the Netherlands.
    N 51 29.744, E 3 36.971
14The discovery of   bacteria.
    Anton van Leeuwenhoek, a Dutch cloth merchant, was the first person to see   bacteria.
    During the 1660s he started to grind glass lenses to make better magnifying   lenses so he could examine the weave of cloth more easily. He excelled at   lens grinding and achieved magnifications up to 500 times lifesize. It is not   recorded why he decided to use his best lens to look at a sample of pond   water, but he did, and saw that it was teeming with tiny living things.
    Leeuwenhoek sent a report of his sightings of bacteria and algae to the   Royal Society in London in the late 1670s with many detailed drawings. These   still exist today and it is obvious that, as well as algae and other   single-celled plants and animals, he also saw some of the larger bacteria.
1676, Delft, Netherlands
15On 13 May 1897 radio pioneer   Guglielmo Marconi made telecommunications history, transmitting a radio   signal across open sea for the first time. He chose Lavernock Point in the   Vale of Glamorgan as the location for the event.
    Lavernock Point is a headland situated on the southern coast of the Vale of   Glamorgan, overlooking the Bristol Channel with views across to Somerset. A   few kilometres away, in the channel, are two islands, Flat Holm and Steep   Holm, so-called because of their physical appearance. It was from Lavernock   Point to Flat Holm in 1897 that Marconi's historic experiment took place.
Coordinates: 51°24'21.9"N 3°10'10.4"W
    Lavernock Point
    Fort Rd,
16The Griffith Observatory   opened to the public in 1935 helping to bring science and astronomy to the   public.USA 34.11856°N 118.30037°W
17Successful hand transplant   surgery performed (prolonged successful outcome) by a team of surgeons   including Warren C. Breidenbach and Tsu-Min Tsai.Jewish Hospital
    200 Abraham Flexner Way
    Louisville, KY 40202 USA
18Invention of the Charge   Coupled Device (CCD) by Willard S. Boyle and George E. SmithBell Labs, Murray Hill, New Jersey, USA
19The Lovell Telescope at   Jodrell Bank - at one time the world's largest steerable radio telescope, and   involved in tracking the first Sputnik, early research into pulsars and   discovery of the first gravitational lens, among other achievements!N53 14.038, W002 18.232
20The first home video game   console was developed at Sanders Associates by a team headed by Ralph Baer in   1966. It became the Magnavox Odyssey.
    Source was wikipidea article on Sanders Associates
95 Canal Street
    Nashua, NH 03060 USA
21Sir Bernard Lovell, founded   the Jodrell Bank Radio Observatory, with the 76m radio telescope dish.Lower Withington, Macclesfield, SK11 9DL, UK
22Development of the   Spitz-Holter valve, a “control shunt” to drain fluid, designed and tested for   treating hydrocephalus. This device is now used throughout the world.
    The history of the treatment for hydrocephalus dates back to the Fertile   Crescent thousands of years ago. Despite three millennia of management,   significant advances in the surgical treatment of the disease have been   infrequent. During the 1950s, a milestone occurred at the Children's Hospital   of Philadelphia, with the successful development of the first working shunt   valve for the treatment of hydrocephalus. In this historical vignette, based   on recent interviews with John Holter, D.Sc. (Hon) and Eugene Spitz. M.D.,   and on a review of the available literature, the authors narrate the exciting   story of the development of the Spitz-Holter valve, which took place in   Philadelphia during the early 1950s.
Children's Hospital of Philapelphia. 3401 Civic Center   Blvd, Philadelphia
23Charles Lindbergh's First   Solo FlightSouther Field, Americus, GA
24The First Transcontinental   Telephone Call on January 25, 1916 was a 4 way phone call between Washington,   DC, New York City, San Francisco, CA and Jekyll Island, GA. Island, GA
25Ibuprofen was discoveredBiocity, Pennyfoot Street, Nottingham
    N 52° 57.060 W 001° 08.254
26Lawrence Livermore National   Laboratory (LLNL) is a federal research facility in Livermore, California,   founded by the University of California in 1952.  Over its 60-year history, Lawrence   Livermore has made many scientific and technological achievements,   including:
    -Advances in particle accelerator and fusion technology, including magnetic   fusion, Free-electron lasers, accelerator mass spectrometry, and inertial   confinement fusion.
    -Breakthroughs in high-performance computing, including the development of   novel concepts for massively parallel computing and the design and   application of computers that can carry out hundreds of trillions of   operations per second.
    -Development of extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) for fabricating   next-generation computer chips.
    -Co-discoverers of new superheavy elements 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, and   118.
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
    7000 East Ave Livermore, C
27The Parkes Observatory The   Parkes Observatory (also known informally as "The Dish") is a radio   telescope observatory, located 20 kilometres north of the town of Parkes, New   South Wales, Australia. It was one of several radio antennas used to receive   live, televised images of the Apollo 11 moon landing on 20 July 1969. Its   scientific contributions over the decades led the ABC to describe it as   "the most successful scientific instrument ever built in   Australia"[1] after 40 years of operation.S 32°59'59.8"     E 148°15'44.3"
    585 Telescope Road
    Parkes NSW 2870
28Pumping Dry the former lake   "Haarlemmermeer", 1849-1852, a project by engineers Leeghwater,   Lynden, and CruquiusIn the Netherlands, just South-West of Amsterdam
    There is a still worki
29Niels Bohr's model of the   Atom, and the Copenhagen Interpretation of quantum mechanics.Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark
    N 55° 41.801 E 012° 34.287
30Hans Christian Ørsted   discovered there was a link between a current running through a wire and a   compass needle.A building just north west of N 55° 40.820 E 012°   34.265
31I would like to add ' De   Afsluitdijk'It's one of the biggest enginering monuments we have in   The Netherland
32Folsom Powerhouse State   Historic Park -
    Before the Folsom powerhouse was built nearly all electric power houses   were using direct current (DC) generators powered by steam engines located   within a very few miles of where the power was needed. The use of rushing   water to generate Hydroelectric power and then shipping it long distances to   where it could be used was not initially economically feasible as long as the   electricity generated was low voltage direct current. Once it was invented,   AC power made it feasible to convert the electrical power to high voltage by   using the newly invented transformers and economically ship the power long   distances to where it was needed. Lower voltage electrical power, which is   much easier and safer to use, could be easily gotten by using transformers to   convert the high voltage power to lower voltages near where it was being   used. DC power cannot use a transformer to change its voltage. The Folsom   Powerhouse, using part of the American River's rushing water to power its   turbines connected to newly invented AC generators, generated three phase 60   cycle AC electricity (the same that's used today in the United States) that   was boosted by newly invented transformers from 800 volts as generated to   11,000 volts and transmitted to Sacramento over a 22 mi (35 km)-long   distribution line, one of the longest electrical distribution lines in the   United States at the time.
38°40′50″N 121°10′32″W
    Folsom, CA USA
33Daniel Benoulli writes   Hydrodynamica (1738) laying the basis for fluid dynamics.Basel University
    Petersplatz 1, 4003 -Basel - Switzerland
34Colossus, the worlds first   programmable electronic computer which was used to break war time coded   messages, so was kept secret for over thirty years.Station X at Bletchley Park, England.
    N051 59.834   W000 44.363
35The railway bridge near   Malmsbury, Victoria, Australia was a significant technical accomplishment for   its time. This magnificent bridge has five 18.3 metre spans, is about 25   metres high, and carries two railway tracks over the Coliban River at   Malmsbury. It is still one of Australia’s finest early bridges.
    The initial design of the Melbourne – Mount Alexander – Murray River   Railway is credited to Isambard Kingdom Brunel. The line was designed with   two broad gauge tracks, high speed alignments, cutting through the landscape,   and double headed rail. It was opened in October 1862 as part of the fourth   stage, between Kyneton and Bendigo, on the historic Melbourne to Bendigo   railway line.
    Construction of the viaduct commenced in 1859 and completed three years   later. It was erected by Cornish and Bruce for the Victorian Railways in   1859. The railway viaduct crosses over the Coliban River, which is dammed   upstream to provide the headworks for the Bendigo Water Supply.
    When completed it was the largest masonry bridge built in Australia,   exceeding the bridge at Perth, Tasmania (1839, 88m), which no longer exists.   Its length was later exceeded by the Coxs River viaduct in New South Wales   (1870, 140m) and then by some later brick arch viaducts. As with the other   structures on this Line, it is substantially built, with excellent   stonework.
    The bridge has five 18.3m bluestone arch spans, with a total sum of spans   of 91.5m and an overall length of 149m; the height from the riverbed to the   rails is 22.6m. The bridge carries two 1.6m gauge rail tracks and has five   18.3m bluestone arch spans, with segmental profiles and a rise of 4.6m. The   piers and the substantial abutments are also of stone.
    The bridge is accessible from Ellesmere Place, which is on the south, or   left, side of the Calder Highway coming from Melbourne. View the viaduct by   either walking through the park to the Lake, or from the southern end of   Ellesmere Place.
S 37°11.492'
    E 144°22.811'
    Malmsbury, Victoria, Australia
36Invention of the Black Box   flight recorder.
    In 1953 David Warren, a Melbourne chemist, joined an Australian team   investigating a series of Comet jet airliner crashes. This inspired Warren’s   idea to build a machine that could record the voices in the cockpit as well   as data from flight instruments.
    He designed a prototype at the Australian Aeronautical Research   Laboratories in Melbourne, using a wire recorder inside a thick asbestos box.  
    Short-sighted management and Australian authorities dismissed Warren’s idea   as unnecessary. But others thought it was brilliant. His Black Box recorders   were manufactured in the UK and US from 1960. Every commercial plane in the   world now carries one.
    The Australian Aeronautical Research Laborat
37Email18.9750° N, 72.8258° E
38VA Shiva Ayyadurai is an   American scientist of Indian origin, inventor and entrepreneur. As a high   school student in 1979, he developed an electronic version of an interoffice   mail system, which he called "EMAIL" and copyrighted in 1982.18.9750° N, 72.8258° E
39Development of WirephotoUniversity of Leipzig, Germany
    N51.338810, E12.378603
40Britain’s first jet plane,   the Gloster E28/39 first left the ground on 8 April 1941 at the Gloster   factory-airfield between Gloucester and Cheltenham.  The Jet Age Museum in Cheltenham celebrates   this - and Cheltenham has since had a thriving aeronautics engineering   industry.Jet Age Museum
    Meteor Business Park,
    Cheltenham Road East,
41Telephone was inventedAlexander Graham Bell National Historic Site
    559 Chebucto Street, Ba
42Galileo's Leaning Tower of   Pisa experiment43°43'22.7"N 10°23'47.4"E