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5 Posts authored by: bluescreen element14 Team



What is it about Nikola Tesla that inspires engineers around the world?


The slights he suffered at the hands of his close-minded, condescending boss, Thomas Edison, who refused to see the potential of alternating current? The breathtaking scope of his altruism, as evidenced by his decision to tear-up his patent agreement on AC current to save his employer, George Westinghouse, from financial ruin? (A decision which in all likelihood prevented him from becoming the world's first billionaire.) His pride, which led him to work as a ditch digger rather than suffer the continuing insults of his employer? His sheer brilliance, evidenced by his epiphany while walking in the park in Budapest that an induction motor could be designed based on rotating magnetic fields? Or the fact that schoolchildren continue to memorize facts about Thomas Edison while educators routinely ignore Tesla?


While I applaud Elon Musk's naming his company in honor of the great inventor, I think this further obscures Nikola Tesla in popular culture. He should occupy the same place in the scientific pantheon as Albert Einstein. His pride, altruism, the scope of his genius, and the fact that he spent so much of his early career trying to convince people less clever than himself what should be done all mark him as a real engineer's engineer. If Tesla were alive today, he would be reading Dilbert comics and smiling at the pointy-headed boss.


What do you think? Is Nikola Tesla science's greatest unsung hero?

Silicon Valley folklore holds that William Shockley, a brilliant physicist who headed up Bell Labs solid-state group after World War II, could never accept that his employees, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain, received credit for discovering the property of electrical transistence instead of him. Bell Labs famously arranged photo-ops like the one below to suggest that Shockley, seated at the microscope, was as closely involved in the discovery of the transistor as Bardeen and Brattain.



The collegiality of the group quickly broke down, and Shockley went on the found the short-lived Shockley Semiconductors, where his personality quirks alienated many of his employees.


"Shockley was very quick mentally," says Conyers Herring, another Bell scientist who worked with him. "He was always a jump ahead of me, and it was difficult to persuade him of anything. He realized his own superiority. He always felt his own way of looking at things was better than anyone else's. Nine times out of 10 it was, but the 10th time got him in trouble because he didn't study the literature sufficiently carefully or didn't accept ideas from people who didn't explain themselves well enough to him."


Despite this, there is a strong case to be made for the idea that, were it not for Shockley's penetrating insights into the behavior of solid state surfaces, Bardeen and Brattain would never have made their famous discovery. It was Shockley who first pointed them to explore the activity of electronics at the boundary of p- and n-layers. And it was Bardeen who worked out the theoretical framework which led to Bardeen and Brattain's laboratory results about transistence. Shockley even predicted the nature of electronic transistence years before its discovery based upon his theoretical understanding of quantum behavior at the juncture of oppositely-charged surfaces.


It's easy to criticize William Shockley for this personal shortcomings and terrible people skills. But has history been too quick to underplay the role he played in the discovery of the transistor, the component upon which the entire Information Age is based?


Tell us what you think in the comments below!

History teaches that Wilbur and Orville Wright successfully performed the first motorized human flight on December 17, 1903.

wright brothers flight


But were they the first to do so?


For years, there has been an alternative theory about a little-known inventor in New Zealand named Richard Pearse. Proponents of Pearse hold that he successfully covered about 350 yards in his motorized airplane on March 31, 1902-- about a year and a half before the Wright brothers' famous experiments at Kitty Hawk.



Evidence to corroborate Pearse's accomplishments remain vague. There were only a handful of eyewitness accounts, and Pearse, himself, did not document his experiments very well. (Wikipedia accounts of Pearse are rife with "citation needed" tags.) Despite this, Pearse is recognized throughout New Zealand and Australia as one of true pioneers of early flight-- and as the true discoverer of powered flight by many. The national government of New Zealand has even celebrating his accomplishments by erecting state monuments and postage stamps in his honor.




Have we been miscrediting the Wright brothers for inventing human powered flight all this time while forgetting about the true inventor of flight, Richard Pearse?

Tell us what you think in the comments below.


Thanks to mcb1 for pointing this out.

Hi Everyone.


Here are the newest suggestions. Which of the suggested entries below stand out to you and should be included in the Atlas? Are there any you think we should not include? Given that we're a community of electronic engineers, it's no surprise that a lot of our locations skew toward discoveries in electronics, like Jack Kilby demonstrating the first working integrated circuit. But we also want the Atlas to encompass all kinds of scientific discoveries-- electronic, physical, medical, biological, astronomical, and so on.


Our team is working hard to add your suggestions to the Atlas. So check out this week's suggestions and tell us which ones grab your attention and what you'd like to see added. And if you have any new suggestions, please add them here and we'll be sure to include them in next week's round-up. (Remember, if you include your name, we'll be sure to credit you in that location's pop-up text.)


Here are this week's suggestions:


1Discovery of Penicillin by   Sir Alexander FlemingSt Mary's Hospital, Praed Street, Paddington, London W2   1NY, United
2The laboratory was founded   during World War II as a secret, centralized facility to coordinate the   scientific research of the Manhattan Project, the Allied project to develop   the first nuclear weapons. It continues to operate as one of two laboratories   in the United States where classified work toward the design of nuclear   weapons is undertaken.Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico,   USA
3The discovery of the first   T-Rex skeletonHell Creek, Montana, USA
4Blériot's Cross-Channel   Flight
    Early in the morning of July 25th, 1909, Louis Blériot (1872-1936) crossed   the English Channel, a distance of 22 statute miles (36.6 km) from Les   Barraques (near Calais) to Dover.
Here are the coordinates of the start point of this   aeronautic achieveme
5Birthplace of Johannes   Kepler48.750258, 8.870649
61960 founding of modern   genetic engineering, discovery of restriction enzymes by Werner Arber at the   Biozentrum altered genetic engineering prevail because now DNA fragments   could be specifically cut and inserted into other organisms.(source:; der Universität Basel
    Klingelbergstrasse 70
    4056 Basel
7John Deere invented the   first Steel Plow in Grand Detour Illinois8334 S. Clinton St. - Grand Detour - Dixon, IL 61021 - USA
8The first fossil remains Of   the Mosasaur were discovered here in 1764.n50 49.348 e005 41.206 Maastricht, The Netherlands
9First Sustained Powered   FlightCanterbury, South Island, New Zealand
101879 - Ritty's Incorruptible   Cashier
    The cash register is a device for calculating and recording sales   transactions. When a transaction was completed, the first cash registers used   a bell that rang and the amount was noted on a large dial on the front of the   machine. During each sale, a paper tape was punched with holes so that the   merchant could keep track of sales. Known as the "Incorruptible   Cashier", the mechanical cash register was invented and patented in 1879   by James Ritty of Dayton, Ohio. John H. Patterson bought Ritty's patent and   his cash register company in 1884.
39° 45′ 34″ N, 84° 11′ 30″ W
    Dayton, Ohio, United States of America
111903 - Invention of the   Aeroplane
    A fixed-wing aircraft, or airplane, is a heavier-than-air craft whose lift   is generated by air pressure differential between the upper and lower wing   surfaces. The Wright brothers, Wilbur and Orville Wright of Dayton, Ohio,   made the first powered and sustained airplane flights under control of the   pilot in the Wright Flyer I on December 17, 1903 in Kitty Hawk, North   Carolina.
    In the two years afterward, they developed their flying machine into the   world's first practical fixed-wing aircraft. By October 1905, the Wright   Flyer III was capable and proven to circle in the air 30 times in 39 minutes   for a total distance of 24.5 miles.
    The brothers' fundamental breakthrough was their invention of   "three-axis control", which enabled the pilot to steer the aircraft   effectively and to maintain its equilibrium. This required method has become   standard on all fixed-wing aircraft.
    From the beginning of their aeronautical work, the Wright brothers focused   on unlocking the secrets of control to conquer "the flying   problem," rather than on developing more powerful engines as some other   experimenters did. Charles Edward Taylor built the first aircraft engine and   was a vital contributor of mechanical aspects in the building and maintaining   of early Wright engines and airplanes.
    Although there were many earlier attempts at heavier-than-air powered   flight, some of which achieved successful short hops, and disputed earlier   claims of sustained flight, the Wright brothers are officially credited by   the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, the international record-setting   body for aeronautics and astronautics, as achieving "the first sustained   and controlled heavier-than-air powered flight". In addition, U.S.   patent number #821393 for the airplane, was filed by Orville Wright on March   23, 1903 and was issued in May 1906.
The Airplane was invented in Dayton, Ohio, United States   of America
12Invention of Electric   Starter - 1911
    In 1911, Charles F. Kettering invented and filed for U.S. Patent 1,150,523   for the first useful electric starter, adapted from a cash register motor.   The starters were first installed by Cadillac on production models in   1912.
Edward Andrew Deed's Barn which is located in what is now   Kettering,
13The invention of the first   telescope.
    Hans Lippershey was born in Wesel, in western Germany, in 1570. He settled   in Middelburg, the capital of the province of Zeeland in the Netherlands, in   1594. During that time he became a master lens grinder and spectacle maker   and established a shop.
    Hans Lippershey is known for the earliest written record of a refracting   telescope.
    Lippershey applied, to the States General of the Netherlands on 2 October   1608, for a patent for his instrument "for seeing things far away as if   they were nearby".
Blauwedijk, Middelburg, the Netherlands.
    N 51 29.744, E 3 36.971
14The discovery of   bacteria.
    Anton van Leeuwenhoek, a Dutch cloth merchant, was the first person to see   bacteria.
    During the 1660s he started to grind glass lenses to make better magnifying   lenses so he could examine the weave of cloth more easily. He excelled at   lens grinding and achieved magnifications up to 500 times lifesize. It is not   recorded why he decided to use his best lens to look at a sample of pond   water, but he did, and saw that it was teeming with tiny living things.
    Leeuwenhoek sent a report of his sightings of bacteria and algae to the   Royal Society in London in the late 1670s with many detailed drawings. These   still exist today and it is obvious that, as well as algae and other   single-celled plants and animals, he also saw some of the larger bacteria.
1676, Delft, Netherlands
15On 13 May 1897 radio pioneer   Guglielmo Marconi made telecommunications history, transmitting a radio   signal across open sea for the first time. He chose Lavernock Point in the   Vale of Glamorgan as the location for the event.
    Lavernock Point is a headland situated on the southern coast of the Vale of   Glamorgan, overlooking the Bristol Channel with views across to Somerset. A   few kilometres away, in the channel, are two islands, Flat Holm and Steep   Holm, so-called because of their physical appearance. It was from Lavernock   Point to Flat Holm in 1897 that Marconi's historic experiment took place.
Coordinates: 51°24'21.9"N 3°10'10.4"W
    Lavernock Point
    Fort Rd,
16The Griffith Observatory   opened to the public in 1935 helping to bring science and astronomy to the   public.USA 34.11856°N 118.30037°W
17Successful hand transplant   surgery performed (prolonged successful outcome) by a team of surgeons   including Warren C. Breidenbach and Tsu-Min Tsai.Jewish Hospital
    200 Abraham Flexner Way
    Louisville, KY 40202 USA
18Invention of the Charge   Coupled Device (CCD) by Willard S. Boyle and George E. SmithBell Labs, Murray Hill, New Jersey, USA
19The Lovell Telescope at   Jodrell Bank - at one time the world's largest steerable radio telescope, and   involved in tracking the first Sputnik, early research into pulsars and   discovery of the first gravitational lens, among other achievements!N53 14.038, W002 18.232
20The first home video game   console was developed at Sanders Associates by a team headed by Ralph Baer in   1966. It became the Magnavox Odyssey.
    Source was wikipidea article on Sanders Associates
95 Canal Street
    Nashua, NH 03060 USA
21Sir Bernard Lovell, founded   the Jodrell Bank Radio Observatory, with the 76m radio telescope dish.Lower Withington, Macclesfield, SK11 9DL, UK
22Development of the   Spitz-Holter valve, a “control shunt” to drain fluid, designed and tested for   treating hydrocephalus. This device is now used throughout the world.
    The history of the treatment for hydrocephalus dates back to the Fertile   Crescent thousands of years ago. Despite three millennia of management,   significant advances in the surgical treatment of the disease have been   infrequent. During the 1950s, a milestone occurred at the Children's Hospital   of Philadelphia, with the successful development of the first working shunt   valve for the treatment of hydrocephalus. In this historical vignette, based   on recent interviews with John Holter, D.Sc. (Hon) and Eugene Spitz. M.D.,   and on a review of the available literature, the authors narrate the exciting   story of the development of the Spitz-Holter valve, which took place in   Philadelphia during the early 1950s.
Children's Hospital of Philapelphia. 3401 Civic Center   Blvd, Philadelphia
23Charles Lindbergh's First   Solo FlightSouther Field, Americus, GA
24The First Transcontinental   Telephone Call on January 25, 1916 was a 4 way phone call between Washington,   DC, New York City, San Francisco, CA and Jekyll Island, GA. Island, GA
25Ibuprofen was discoveredBiocity, Pennyfoot Street, Nottingham
    N 52° 57.060 W 001° 08.254
26Lawrence Livermore National   Laboratory (LLNL) is a federal research facility in Livermore, California,   founded by the University of California in 1952.  Over its 60-year history, Lawrence   Livermore has made many scientific and technological achievements,   including:
    -Advances in particle accelerator and fusion technology, including magnetic   fusion, Free-electron lasers, accelerator mass spectrometry, and inertial   confinement fusion.
    -Breakthroughs in high-performance computing, including the development of   novel concepts for massively parallel computing and the design and   application of computers that can carry out hundreds of trillions of   operations per second.
    -Development of extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) for fabricating   next-generation computer chips.
    -Co-discoverers of new superheavy elements 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, and   118.
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
    7000 East Ave Livermore, C
27The Parkes Observatory The   Parkes Observatory (also known informally as "The Dish") is a radio   telescope observatory, located 20 kilometres north of the town of Parkes, New   South Wales, Australia. It was one of several radio antennas used to receive   live, televised images of the Apollo 11 moon landing on 20 July 1969. Its   scientific contributions over the decades led the ABC to describe it as   "the most successful scientific instrument ever built in   Australia"[1] after 40 years of operation.S 32°59'59.8"     E 148°15'44.3"
    585 Telescope Road
    Parkes NSW 2870
28Pumping Dry the former lake   "Haarlemmermeer", 1849-1852, a project by engineers Leeghwater,   Lynden, and CruquiusIn the Netherlands, just South-West of Amsterdam
    There is a still worki
29Niels Bohr's model of the   Atom, and the Copenhagen Interpretation of quantum mechanics.Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark
    N 55° 41.801 E 012° 34.287
30Hans Christian Ørsted   discovered there was a link between a current running through a wire and a   compass needle.A building just north west of N 55° 40.820 E 012°   34.265
31I would like to add ' De   Afsluitdijk'It's one of the biggest enginering monuments we have in   The Netherland
32Folsom Powerhouse State   Historic Park -
    Before the Folsom powerhouse was built nearly all electric power houses   were using direct current (DC) generators powered by steam engines located   within a very few miles of where the power was needed. The use of rushing   water to generate Hydroelectric power and then shipping it long distances to   where it could be used was not initially economically feasible as long as the   electricity generated was low voltage direct current. Once it was invented,   AC power made it feasible to convert the electrical power to high voltage by   using the newly invented transformers and economically ship the power long   distances to where it was needed. Lower voltage electrical power, which is   much easier and safer to use, could be easily gotten by using transformers to   convert the high voltage power to lower voltages near where it was being   used. DC power cannot use a transformer to change its voltage. The Folsom   Powerhouse, using part of the American River's rushing water to power its   turbines connected to newly invented AC generators, generated three phase 60   cycle AC electricity (the same that's used today in the United States) that   was boosted by newly invented transformers from 800 volts as generated to   11,000 volts and transmitted to Sacramento over a 22 mi (35 km)-long   distribution line, one of the longest electrical distribution lines in the   United States at the time.
38°40′50″N 121°10′32″W
    Folsom, CA USA
33Daniel Benoulli writes   Hydrodynamica (1738) laying the basis for fluid dynamics.Basel University
    Petersplatz 1, 4003 -Basel - Switzerland
34Colossus, the worlds first   programmable electronic computer which was used to break war time coded   messages, so was kept secret for over thirty years.Station X at Bletchley Park, England.
    N051 59.834   W000 44.363
35The railway bridge near   Malmsbury, Victoria, Australia was a significant technical accomplishment for   its time. This magnificent bridge has five 18.3 metre spans, is about 25   metres high, and carries two railway tracks over the Coliban River at   Malmsbury. It is still one of Australia’s finest early bridges.
    The initial design of the Melbourne – Mount Alexander – Murray River   Railway is credited to Isambard Kingdom Brunel. The line was designed with   two broad gauge tracks, high speed alignments, cutting through the landscape,   and double headed rail. It was opened in October 1862 as part of the fourth   stage, between Kyneton and Bendigo, on the historic Melbourne to Bendigo   railway line.
    Construction of the viaduct commenced in 1859 and completed three years   later. It was erected by Cornish and Bruce for the Victorian Railways in   1859. The railway viaduct crosses over the Coliban River, which is dammed   upstream to provide the headworks for the Bendigo Water Supply.
    When completed it was the largest masonry bridge built in Australia,   exceeding the bridge at Perth, Tasmania (1839, 88m), which no longer exists.   Its length was later exceeded by the Coxs River viaduct in New South Wales   (1870, 140m) and then by some later brick arch viaducts. As with the other   structures on this Line, it is substantially built, with excellent   stonework.
    The bridge has five 18.3m bluestone arch spans, with a total sum of spans   of 91.5m and an overall length of 149m; the height from the riverbed to the   rails is 22.6m. The bridge carries two 1.6m gauge rail tracks and has five   18.3m bluestone arch spans, with segmental profiles and a rise of 4.6m. The   piers and the substantial abutments are also of stone.
    The bridge is accessible from Ellesmere Place, which is on the south, or   left, side of the Calder Highway coming from Melbourne. View the viaduct by   either walking through the park to the Lake, or from the southern end of   Ellesmere Place.
S 37°11.492'
    E 144°22.811'
    Malmsbury, Victoria, Australia
36Invention of the Black Box   flight recorder.
    In 1953 David Warren, a Melbourne chemist, joined an Australian team   investigating a series of Comet jet airliner crashes. This inspired Warren’s   idea to build a machine that could record the voices in the cockpit as well   as data from flight instruments.
    He designed a prototype at the Australian Aeronautical Research   Laboratories in Melbourne, using a wire recorder inside a thick asbestos box.  
    Short-sighted management and Australian authorities dismissed Warren’s idea   as unnecessary. But others thought it was brilliant. His Black Box recorders   were manufactured in the UK and US from 1960. Every commercial plane in the   world now carries one.
    The Australian Aeronautical Research Laborat
37Email18.9750° N, 72.8258° E
38VA Shiva Ayyadurai is an   American scientist of Indian origin, inventor and entrepreneur. As a high   school student in 1979, he developed an electronic version of an interoffice   mail system, which he called "EMAIL" and copyrighted in 1982.18.9750° N, 72.8258° E
39Development of WirephotoUniversity of Leipzig, Germany
    N51.338810, E12.378603
40Britain’s first jet plane,   the Gloster E28/39 first left the ground on 8 April 1941 at the Gloster   factory-airfield between Gloucester and Cheltenham.  The Jet Age Museum in Cheltenham celebrates   this - and Cheltenham has since had a thriving aeronautics engineering   industry.Jet Age Museum
    Meteor Business Park,
    Cheltenham Road East,
41Telephone was inventedAlexander Graham Bell National Historic Site
    559 Chebucto Street, Ba
42Galileo's Leaning Tower of   Pisa experiment43°43'22.7"N 10°23'47.4"E

Hi Everyone.


As you know, we've been busy adding new locations to our Atlas of Scientific Achievement above. We're now up to ~120 data points tracking everything from the invention of the first transistor to the formulation of the Big Bang theory. From the invention of the laser to the discovery of the earliest hominids in East Africa. It's been amazing watching the history of human discovery come alive before our very eyes, and we're thrilled to see that you're also getting into it, and are suggesting new locations for us to include.


(What's that? Haven't seen the Atlas yet? Well check it out! )


We thought we should share each week's suggestions with you here and see what you make of them. Which of the suggested entries below stand out to you and should be included in the Atlas? Are there any you think we should not include? Given that we're a community of electronic engineers, it's no surprise that a lot of our locations skew toward discoveries in electronics, like Jack Kilby demonstrating the first working integrated circuit. But we also want the Atlas to encompass all kinds of scientific discoveries-- electronic, physical, medical, biological, astronomical, and so on.


Our team is working hard to add your suggestions to the Atlas. So check out this week's suggestions and tell us which ones grab your attention and what you'd like to see added. And if you have any new suggestions, please add them here and we'll be sure to include them in next week's round-up. (Remember, if you include your name, we'll be sure to credit you in that location's pop-up text.)


Here are this week's suggestions.


ItemDate AddedEventLocation
16/16/2015Julius Richard Petri (May 31, 1852 – December 20, 1921) was a  German microbiologist who is generally credited with inventing the Petri dish  while working as assistant to pioneering bacteriologist Robert Koch.Berlin, Germany
26/16/20151st digital computer invented by John Atanasoff and Clifford  Berry 1941Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa USA
    N 42 01.688  W 093 38.974
36/16/2015Guglielmo  Marconi was born hereBologna, Italy
46/16/2015The Nuclear Submarine.  As  The Historic Naval Ships Association points out, before the U.S.S. Nautilus  hit the water in 1954 submarines were really submersibles; boats that could  go underwater but not for very long. The Nautilus, built in Groton, CT. by  the Electric Boat Company and running on nuclear power, could stay underwater  for months at a time because it created its own power. Part publicity stunt,  part "˜hope you're watching, Russia,' the Nautilus even took a trip  under the North Pole ice. All of these facts have been drilled into the heads  of bored Connecticut middle schoolers being forced to visit the docked ship  on class trips.Groton, Connecticut. N 41 20.862 W 72 4.863
56/17/2015In 1923, De la Cierva's first successful Autogiro was flown in  Spain .
    Primer vuelo del Autogiro de Juan de la Cierva. Realizó un vuelo entre la  base aérea de Getafe y la base aérea de Cuatro Vientos
40.303414, -3.724211
66/17/2015Ictineo II was a pioneering submarine launched in 1864 by  engineer Narcís Monturiol i Estarriol of Catalonia, Spain and was the first  air independent and combustion powered submarine and was the first submarine  to overcome the basic problems of machine powered underwater navigation.41.375130, 2.187405
76/17/2015Multistage rocket - Conrad Haas/Konrad Haas
    Between 1529 and 1556, he wrote a book in German language in which he  described rocket technology, involving the combination of fireworks and  weapons technologies. This manuscript was discovered in 1961, in the Sibiu  public records (Sibiu public records Varia II 374).
    Diagram of multi-staged rocket by Conrad Haas
    In this work Haas dealt with the technical details of rocket construction,  explaining the working principles of a rocket. He described many rocket  types, including the multi-stage rocket, bundled rockets, and the idea of  modern spacecraft. His work also dealt with the theory of motion of  multi-stage rockets, different fuel mixtures using liquid fuel, and introduced  delta-shape fins and bell-shaped nozzles.
    In the last paragraph of his chapter on the military use of rockets, he  wrote (translated):
    "But my advice is for more peace and no war, leaving the rifles calmly  in storage, so the bullet is not fired, the gunpowder is not burned or wet,  so the prince keeps his money, the arsenal master his life; that is the  advice Conrad Haas gives."
Kempel Barracks - Sibiu Arsenal.
    Piata Armelor Sibiu, Romania
    Latitude: 45.795762 | Longitude: 24.145395
86/17/2015Photonic crystalBell Communications Research, Navesink Research Center, Red  Bank, New Jersey 07701, USA
    Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544,  USA
96/17/2015Electric  generator29, Avenue des Ternes, 17e arrondissement, 75008 Paris, France
106/17/2015Saxophonerue Myrha, 18e arrondissement, 75018 Paris,
116/17/2015The speech of Albert 1st, King of of the Belgians, held in  Seraing on October 1st, 1927, is at the origin of the Belgian National Fund  for Scientific Research (F.R.S.-FNRS)N 50.603095; E 5.551774
126/17/2015Illusion of a  moving image by Joseph PlateauUniversité de Liège
    Place du 20 Août, 7
    4000 Liège
136/17/2015World Wide Web  invented by Robert Cailliau and Sir Tim Berners-Lee.Route de Meyrin 385
    1217 Meyrin
146/17/2015Submarines were first built by Dutch inventor Cornelius van  Drebel in the early 17th century, but it was not until 150 years later that  they were first used in naval combat. David Bushnell, an American inventor,  began building underwater mines while a student at Yale University. Deciding  that a submarine would be the best means of delivering his mines in warfare,  he built an eight-foot-long wooden submersible that was christened the Turtle  for its shape. Large enough to accommodate one operator, the submarine was  entirely hand-powered. Lead ballast kept the craft balanced.
    Donated to the Patriot cause after the outbreak of war with Britain in  1775, Ezra Lee piloted the craft unnoticed out to the 64-gun HMS Eagle in New  York Harbor on September 7, 1776. As Lee worked to anchor a time bomb to the  hull, he could see British seamen on the deck above, but they failed to  notice the strange craft below the surface. Lee had almost secured the bomb  when his boring tools failed to penetrate a layer of iron sheathing. He  retreated, and the bomb exploded nearby, causing no harm to either the Eagle  or the Turtle.
    During the next week, the Turtle made several more attempts to sink British  ships on the Hudson River, but each time it failed, owing to the operator’s  lack of skill. Only Bushnell was really able to competently execute the  submarine’s complicated functions, but because of his physical frailty he was  unable to pilot the Turtle in any of its combat missions. During the Battle  of Fort Lee, the Turtle was lost when the American sloop transporting it was  sunk by the British.
    Despite the failures of the Turtle, General George Washington gave Bushnell  a commission as an Army engineer, and the drifting mines he constructed  destroyed the British frigate Cereberus and wreaked havoc against other  British ships. After the war, he became commander of the U.S. Army Corps of  Engineers stationed at West Point.
Yale Connecticut USA
156/17/2015Praline (Belgian  praline) invented by Frédéric NeuhausGalerie de la Reine 25-27
    1000 Brussels
166/17/2015Eli Whitney (December 8, 1765 – January 8, 1825) was an American  inventor best known for inventing the cotton gin. This was one of the key  inventions of the Industrial Revolution and shaped the economy of the  Antebellum South.[1] Whitney's invention made upland short cotton into a  profitable crop, which strengthened the economic foundation of slavery in the  United States. Despite the social and economic impact of his invention,  Whitney lost many profits in legal battles over patent infringement for the cotton  gin. Thereafter, he turned his attention into securing contracts with the  government in the manufacture of muskets for the newly formed United States  Army. He continued making arms and inventing until his death in 1825.Studied at Yale in new haven Connecticut USA
176/17/2015Birthplace of Fiber Optic cabling
Harlow, Essex, UK
186/17/2015Dollarway Road
    The US Interstate Highway System is  listed as the largest public works project (about 47,000 miles) ever  undertaken in the history of mankind and the technique of Asphalt Pavement  over a special mix of concrete was invented here in Arkansas on what was to  be called the Dollarway Road because the cost, even including the 9 feet of  compacted gravel on each side (now called road shoulders) per linear foot was  $1.00  The Federal Government, looking  for smooth roads to connect the whole country heard about this very smooth  road surface in Arkansas that motorist from all across the country and even  from around the world were shipping their cars by rail to drive on so after  some investigation of it, copied what was invented here, and it has spread  throughout the world. The beginning of our modern day roads started with this  9 foot wide 24 miles long smooth asphalt over concrete with 9ft compacted  gravel passing lanes on each side. *The whole thing started with a bicycle  club in Little Rock asking the governor for smoother roads to ride on.*
Pine Bluff - Redfield, Arkansas    USA
    In 1913 the proposed 14 miles of newly invented road surface that began in  Pine Bluff, Arkansas grew to 24 miles long. You could drive wide open, 24mph,  here and some citizens petitioned the State to stop it because man was never  supposed to go that fast.
    Some un-retouched, un-repaired surfaces of this original 1913 road can be  found here at Dollarway Road Park in Redfield, AR. USA
    N 34° 26.009 W 092° 10.861
196/18/2015Smallpox VaccineDr Jenner's House
    Church Lane, Berkeley GL13 9BN, United Kingdom
206/18/2015Edwin Beard  Budding's lawn mower and adjustable spannerPhoenix Works, Stroud, Gloucestershire GL5 2BU
216/18/2015Isambard Kingdom Brunel
    Designed Bristol Temple Meads station, Clifton Suspension Bridge, the SS  Great Britan... amongst other things in the South West of England...
    Take your pick!
Bristol, United Kingdom:
    Temple Meads station @ Temple Meads Railway Station, Station Approach,  Bristol BS1 6QF
    Clifton Suspension Bridge @ Bridgemaster's Office, Bridge Road, Bristol,  North Somerset BS8 3PA
    SS Great Britain @ Great Western Dockyard, Gas Ferry Rd, Bristol BS1 6TY
226/19/2015The Pap Smear Test, the most successful cancer screening  technique in history, designed to identify abnormal cells to diagnose  cervical cancer. It was named after its inventor, Dr. George Nicholas  Papanicolaou. Discovered in 1928.Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY  10065, USA
236/19/2015Fermi 1 was the first commercial Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor.  Criticality was achieved in August 1963. It's design capacity was 430 MWth.6400 N. Dixie Hwy., Newport, MI, 48166, USA
246/20/2015Reiskrater Museum in Nordlingen, Germany where a piece of a moon  rock was donated by NASA. Astronauts are shown on the moon. This crater was  used by NASA Astronauts to practice walking on he moon.
    We are visiting Europe from Canton, Ohio and visited this Museum on our two  month by ourselves adventure. We have geocached in the Nederlnds, France,  Belgium, Germany, Poland, Czech Republic, and Austria. It was one of our  adventures to qualify for GC3W2RP, GC4Y2KG, and GC4EGJ6. We now qualify for  GC3W2RP but will probably take our trip to Israel next year to qualify for  the other two. Just to brag a little, we have completed the Cache Across  America, GC12E08. TheView (Ed and Nancy)
Nordlingen,  Germany
256/21/2015The invention of the jet boat:
    In the early 1950s, when Sir William Hamilton began experimenting with  marine jets, he followed the lead of the most successful invention to date,  the American Hanley Hydrojet. Using a round centrifugal water pump that drew  in the water and expelled it through a steer able nozzle under the boat, he  was able to achieve an encouraging but unspectacular speed of 11 mile per  hour.
    In 1954, a slight modification to expel the jet stream above the waterline  proved the turning point in marine jet propulsion, increasing speed to 17mph  and eliminating all underwater appendages. Waterjet propulsion was at last  truly successful and the Hamilton Waterjet was born.
Middleton,  Christchurch, New Zealand
266/23/2015Development of the modern jetboat by Sir Charles William  "Bill" Feilden Hamilton.Fairlie, South  Island, New Zealand
276/23/2015X Ray CT  Tomography machine developed by Sir Godfrey Hounsfield and team.Latitude. 51.520998000000000000.    Longitude. -0.416057200000068400
    EMI Research Labs hayes middlesex UK
286/28/2015Development of  the first nuclear rocket engine. 36°48'20.95"N
    NRDS Nuclear rocket development site, Jackass flats, Nevada on the Nevada  test site