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Teledyne LeCroy

17 posts
Our last post considered some broad aspects of debugging DDR memory on Internet of Things (IoT) devices, such as how chip interposers can help with probing access and the benefits of virtual probing software. Let's now take a look at some particular examples of problems with these memory chips and their controllers and see how debugging with an oscilloscope might be approached.   Figure 1: Using the oscilloscope's Track math function can help pin down timing anomalies   Figure 1 is ...
Internet of Things (IoT) devices are, at heart, just another embedded computing system, albeit one with an extremely well-defined function. As such, there's bound to be some amount of on-board data storage, and the storage medium of choice these days is typically double data-rate (DDR) memory. DDR memory transfers serial data on both the rising and falling edges of the clock signal, which is the characteristic from which it derives its name.   Figure 1: Embedded systems such as IoT devic ...
Figure 1: A generic IoT block diagram shows serial-data links in blue   In our ongoing review of debugging serial-data standards for Internet of Things (IoT) devices, let's now turn to three more popular protocols: Ethernet, SATA, and PCIe. Ethernet is found in computer networking applications, while the Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) connects host bus adapters to mass-storage devices. The Peripheral Component Interconnect Express (PCI Express or PCIe) handles communication b ...
A myriad of serial-data standards come into play when we're discussing Internet of Things (IoT) devices. We've talked about I2C, SPI, and UART in a previous post. Yet another serial-bus standard that comes under the IoT umbrella is the Controller Area Network (or CANbus) standard. CANbus enables microcontrollers and peripheral devices to communicate with each other in applications without an intervening host computer. In the past, it's been typically used in automotive applications, but CANbus h ...
Our last post discussed the difficulties in acquiring the many sensor signals that may be input to a deeply embedded system such as an IoT device as well as a hardware solution to the problem. Another aspect of IoT debugging and validation is the low-speed serial data standards used to facilitate communication between ICs and between controllers and peripheral devices (Figure 1). To that end, let's take a look at three such low-speed standards: I2C, SPI, and UART. Figure 1: Serial-data links ...
If we recall our earlier post with its definition of what constitutes an Internet-of-Things (IoT) device, one of the main functions of such devices is to sense its environment and digitize the collected data. Often, an IoT device uses many sensors to collect information about its environment (Figure 1). Having the ability to capture and analyze signals from numerous sensors simultaneously is critical to ensure proper and optimal functionality of the IoT device's design.   Figure 1: IoT d ...
Internet of Things (IoT) devices must communicate with their peers--other IoT devices--as well as with the host system that governs their activities. In our previous post, we examined how to perform amplitude and frequency demodulation of RF bursts, such as Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) advertising bursts. We'll continue with other methods of analyzing RF signals. Figure 1: This screen capture depicts frequency demodulation and subsequent Manchester decoding of the bit stream   Figure 1 de ...
Debugging and validation of the physical layer of serial-data links is a preeminent oscilloscope application area these days. Today's real-time digital oscilloscopes have a wealth of tools to help you dig into any/all serial protocols and learn what's really going on electrically with your serial links.   Figure 1: Trigger dialog boxes will match the protocol of interest   First and foremost is serial triggering and decode. When appropriately equipped, Teledyne LeCroy oscilloscopes ...
Parameter math functions are an important part of an oscilloscope's analysis capabilities. Using parameter math, you can create custom parameters based on simple arithmetic relationships between existing parameters. It allows you to add, subtract, multiply, divide, or rescale parameters (Figure 1).   Figure 1: Parameter math functions provide a way to create custom parameters   You can do things like inverting waveforms, multiply voltage and current to find power, or integrate a wa ...
When using an oscilloscope, there are bound to be instances in which you need to capture a large number of fast pulses in quick succession, or, conversely, a small number of events separated by long periods of time. Both are challenging for typical signal acquisition modes. But many Teledyne LeCroy oscilloscopes provide what's known as Sequence mode, which lets you capture these events while ignoring the long intervals between them.   Figure 1: Sequence mode grabs rare triggered events f ...
In earlier posts about how to maximize your oscilloscope's utility, we've discussed how to properly capture a waveform, making measurements, and extracting more meaningful information from those measurements that might be readily apparent. Now we'll look at how to correlate anomalous behavior from a waveform with other waveforms we may have captured. In many Teledyne LeCroy oscilloscopes, a front-panel push button brings up the WaveScan advanced search and analysis tool, which provides the abili ...
Our discussion of cursors and parameters leads us neatly into the topics of tracks and trends, which are both means of extending parameter measurement into a more analytical direction. We can do this using math functions that are part of your Teledyne LeCroy oscilloscope's toolset.   Figure 1: The track math function shows how data changes over time     As your oscilloscope acquires waveforms and automatically compiles statistical data on parameter measurements, the track mat ...
Oscilloscopes give us a wealth of tools with which to view, measure, and analyze the performance of a circuit. Broadly speaking, two classes of such tools are cursors and parameter measurements. Taken on their own, both classes afford the user a great deal of capability. Put them together, though, and you can really start to gain deep insights into what's going on with a waveform.   Figure 1: Cursors (top) and parameter measurements (bottom) are both powerful tools in their own right  ...
If we really want to get the most out of our oscilloscopes, we'd be remiss in overlooking the documentation capabilities that modern instruments provide. It's so important to document our working sessions so they're consistent and repeatable. Oscilloscope setups can be quite intricate for a given measurement or procedure. Why not let the instrument help us keep track of such things?   Figure l: A LabNotebook entry quickly and easily saves everything you need to later replicate your measu ...
Triggering is one of the most basic, yet most useful, tools your oscilloscope offers you. Say you want to see what led up to, and/or what follows, a trigger condition. You're looking at an interesting waveform such as that shown in Figure 1. You have the trigger's delay position set at 10% and 90%.   Figure 1: Pre-triggering, or trigger delay, is a useful tool for debugging applications     But now you want to change the horizontal time base setting, and when you do, that trig ...