Kaypro 10

 

Kaypro 10

 

In June of 1983, Non-Linear Systems introduces the Kaypro 10, it shipped with one double-sided double-density (DSDD) floppy disk drive and a 10-MB internal hard drive. Currently, replacement parts for both the floppy and hard drive are limited to used items with increasing prices and questionable reliability.  Given the choice of maintaining the Kaypro 10 as rarely used museum pieces or continue its useful life as an example of what technology was like as computer begin to enter the home and small businesses, I have decided to replace the less reliable parts: floppy and hard drive with emulators that utilize solid-state technology (SD/USB), so it can be used by students to experience CP/M on an early example of personal computer.

 

Trivia

 

Star Trek creator Gene Roddenberry also bought a Kaypro 10 and asked "Trouble with Tribbles" writer David Gerrold to help him use it.

 

 

ProcessorZ80A
Motherboard81-180 C
Speed4 MHz
RAM64K
ROM81-302
Storage

5.25" 390K DSDD floppy drive

10 MB Seagate ST-212 hard drive

ExpansionNone
BusN/A
Video80x24 text on built-in monochrome monitor
I/O

1 Parallel, 2 Serial, 1 Light Pen (rj9), 1 Keyboard (rj9)

OS OptionsCP/M 2.2g

 

Gotek USB Floppy Emulator

 

Floppy Emulator - Gotek (SFR1M44-FUM-DL)

 

  • The Floppy Emulator unit was fabricated with the same data and power connections (4-pin Molex male to 3.5-inch female floppy disk drive FDD Power Connector required).
  • Capable of storing data worth 100 Floppy Disk Images.
  • Immune to a magnetic field, climatic environment, or shocks.
  • Responds to i/o from the motherboard as if it were a floppy drive
  • Firmware upgrade available from HxC to enable support of 5 1/4 drives or FlashFloppy.

 

Information gathered on the spec for floppy drives in the various Kaypro models:

 

BEGIN KAY1 Kaypro II/2 - SSDD 48 tpi 5.25" - 512 x 10

DENSITY MFM ,LOW

CYLINDERS 40 SIDES 1 SECTORS 10,512 SKEW 4

SIDE1 0 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9

BSH 3 BLM 7 EXM 0 DSM 194 DRM 63 AL0 0F0H AL1 0 OFS 1

END

 

BEGIN KAY2 Kaypro 2X/4/10 - DSDD 48 tpi 5.25" - 512 x 10

DENSITY MFM ,LOW

CYLINDERS 40 SIDES 2 SECTORS 10,512 SKEW 4

SIDE1 0 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9

SIDE2 0 10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19

ORDER SIDES

BSH 4 BLM 15 EXM 1 DSM 196 DRM 63 AL0 0C0H AL1 0 OFS 1

END

 

BEGIN KAY3 Kaypro 2X/4/10 (Alternate) - DSDD 48 tpi 5.25" - 512 x 10

DENSITY MFM ,LOW

CYLINDERS 40 SIDES 2 SECTORS 10,512 SKEW 4

SIDE1 0 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9

SIDE2 1 10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19

ORDER SIDES

BSH 4 BLM 15 EXM 1 DSM 196 DRM 63 AL0 0C0H AL1 0 OFS 1

END

 

BEGIN KAY4 Kaypro, Pro-8 ROM - DSDD 96 tpi 5.25" - 512 x 10

DENSITY MFM ,LOW

CYLINDERS 80 SIDES 2 SECTORS 10,512 SKEW 4

SIDE1 0 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9

SIDE2 0 20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29

ORDER SIDES

BSH 5 BLM 31 EXM 3 DSM 196 DRM 95 AL0 080H AL1 0 OFS 2

END

 

BEGIN KAY5 Kaypro Advent TurboROM - DSDD 48 tpi 5.25" - 1024 x 5

DENSITY MFM ,LOW

CYLINDERS 40 SIDES 2 SECTORS 5,1024 SKEW 2

SIDE1 0 1,2,3,4,5

SIDE2 1 11,12,13,14,15

ORDER SIDES

BSH 4 BLM 15 EXM 1 DSM 195 DRM 255 AL0 0F0H AL1 0 OFS 2

END

 

BEGIN KAY6 Kaypro Advent TurboROM - SSDD 48 tpi 5.25" - 1024 x 5

DENSITY MFM ,LOW

CYLINDERS 40 SIDES 1 SECTORS 5,1024 SKEW 2

SIDE1 0 1,2,3,4,5

BSH 3 BLM 7 EXM 0 DSM 185 DRM 31 AL0 0C0H AL1 0 OFS 3

END

 

BEGIN KAY7 Kaypro Advent TurboROM - DSDD 96 tpi 5.25" - 1024 x 5

DENSITY MFM ,LOW

CYLINDERS 80 SIDES 2 SECTORS 5,1024 SKEW 2

SIDE1 0 1,2,3,4,5

SIDE2 1 21,22,23,24,25

ORDER SIDES

BSH 4 BLM 15 EXM 0 DSM 395 DRM 255 AL0 0F0H AL1 0 OFS 2

END

 

MFM Emulator Board - Rev. C

 

BeagleBone Black

 

Hard drive Emulator - MFM Hard Drive Reader/Emulator

  • The MFM Emulator unit has been fabricated with multiple connections.
  • The unit can read from an existing MFM Drive to obtain a drive image, multiple images can be stored on the emulator.
  • This unit is immune to a magnetic field, climatic environment, or shocks.
  • The unit responds to i/o from the WD1010 controller as if it were an MFM hard drive
  • Utilizes the processing power of a Beaglebone Black (BBB).

 

Hard Drive Controller -  WD1010

Hard Drive - Seagate ST-212 (Kaypro used a variety of hard drive vendors)

Floppy Drive - Epson 5.25 (unable to find drive documentation), DSDD 390K

 

Task List:

 

1. Given the system is booting off of the Hard Drive:

    a. Remove the Hard Drive from the system.

    b. Connect the Hard Drive to the MFM Emulator Board and extract an image.

    c. Install the MFM Emulator Board in the system and retain the physical hard drive (historical value/resell to pay for emulator).

 

2. After the system is booting off of the MFM Emulator

    a. Remove the Epson 5.25 floppy.

    b. Update the firmware in the Gotek Floppy Emulator to support 5.25 floppy using (HcX upgrade)

    c. obtain USB images of CP/M for the Kaypro 10

    d. Install the Gotek and verify the ability to read and write using a USB storage device.

    e. modify the unit with a Rotary Encoder

    f.  modify the unit with a 40x2 I2C OLED Display

 

Additional project: (started a separate blog on this topic)

 

Keyboard emulator to enable the use of a usb keyboard with the Kaypro 10.  The emulator would accept a USB Keyboard and communicate via TTL serial (transistor-transistor logic) through the J2 serial interface (rj9) connection of the Kaypro (4 wire, 300 baud interface).  A Raspberry Pi Zero might work well as the keyboard emulator.

 

Section of the Motherboard schematic for J2 - the connector for the keyboard cable (headset cord).

 

Seagate ST-212 Hard Drive

Form                  5.25"/HH              Cylinders         306 
Capacity form/unform  10/   12 MB           Heads               4
Seek time   / track   65.0/23.0 ms          Sector/track       17
Controller            MFM / ST412           Precompensation   128
Cache/Buffer          KB                    Landing Zone      319
Data transfer rate    0.625 MB/S int        Bytes/Sector      512 0.625 MB/S 
Recording method      MFM                            
Supply voltage        5V/12V

MFM Emulator - Extracting a Digital Image

After updating Beaglebone Black board (BBB) with the appropriate MFM Emulator software, I executing the recommended tests, connected an Ethernet cable, updated the date/time of the BBB,  and attached the BBB to the emulator board (rev C). I removed the hard drive from the Kaypro 10 and attached it to the emulator via the two ribbon cables.  Using a XTA Power supply, with a workbench board, I connected power to the emulator and the hard drive.  The output below is from the BBB after the following commands submitted through the serial port connection (utilizing putty on a laptop).

 

cd ~/mfm
./setup_mfm_read
./mfm_read  --analyze --emulation_file ../emu_file --extracted_data_file kaypro_10

 

Screen capture after the above commands were submitted:

 

I believe I now have a digital image of the physical hard drive that was installed in my Kaypro 10.  My next step is to mount the emulator board, connect the emulator to the hard drive controller, and verify my digital image of the hard drive.

 

Notes:

 

Kaypro restoration site that I found interesting and helpful.

Kaypro power supply info link.

Printed copy of a Kaypro Technical Manual made available online by others (https://www.lulu.com/shop/search.ep?keyWords=kaypro+technical+manual&type= ).

Getting floppy Disk images to a USB Thumb Drive has proven to be a difficult task because of lack of information and availability of archive software that is accessible within 64bit hardware using Microsoft Windows 10.

 

Update:

 

USB Cable Extension, RJ45 Cable Extension, and SDCard Extention arrived today.  So now I can put the computer back together and have access to the ports on the BeagleBone Black card from outside of the computer case.