74 Replies Latest reply on Jun 11, 2019 10:36 AM by dougw

    Sensor to detect Human Presence

    gunaseelan

      Hello Friends,

       

                          Is there any sensor to detect human presence . Am aware of PIR (Passive Infra Red) sensor , which would human motion but not the human presence . Another way is by using image processing technique. Kindly suggest me a better solution .

       

      Thanks.

        • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
          Rushy

          Hi Gunaseelan, OMRON do a thermal sensor that can detect stationary thermal objects as opposed to standard PIR motion sensor that only detect motion. The OMRON D6T thermal sensor is able to detect the presence of stationary humans by detecting body heat, and can therefore be used to automatically switch off unnecessary lighting, air conditioning, etc. when people are not present (regardless of whether they move or not).

          7 of 7 people found this helpful
          • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
            nschreiber0813

            Dear: Gunaseelan

            If you are trying to build a human presence sensor there are a few things you should know about that. First of all humans tend to have certain things that are detectable like for instance...

            • Motion
            • Heat
            • CO2
            • Humanoid shape
            • Face Recognition

            Luckily I know the perfect sensor for you. Just go to adafruit. This is the best sensor I could find.

            http://www.adafruit.com/products/189

            Good Luck.

            Form: Noah

            4 of 4 people found this helpful
            • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
              mihirpatel

              I am working on the same application and face the same problem so let me know if you find any solution.

               

              Thank you

                • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
                  shabaz

                  Hi,

                   

                  This question was posted simultaneously about 4 times in different places in the forum by the original poster, please don't post on this thread any more.

                   

                  Hi Mihir,

                   

                  Please see this thread: http://www.element14.com/community/message/121192/l/re-sensor-to-detect-human-presence#121192

                  If you have a specific scenario and use-case, please mention it specifically and start a more detailed thread with a detailed description of exactly what you need. This thread is way too generic to provide you with useful answers for you.

                    • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
                      mrigank

                      Hi,

                      I want to know if there are sensors that can gauge a human's emotions. Like the rise in heart beat when in stressful situations and all. Something along that line. Can't get too detailed here. IPR :p

                        • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
                          shabaz

                          Hi Mrigank,

                           

                          Perhaps I'm wrong, but anything with a scientific quality and quantity, such as physical, electrical, chemical attributes, can be measured - might not be easy, might be constraints, and might take expensive equipment,

                          but it can be done.

                          However, you need to examine your real-life requirement (e.g. "emotions") or "human presence" as the original poster wanted, and translate it into the particular scientific attributes you wish to observe or measure.

                          The ones you choose can be constrained to your requirement. For example, if you know that you are only interested in the emotions of people prone to outbursts when they are standing at a specific quiet location,

                          then that is a constraint you can make use of, and then you could use a microphone placed at that location as a sensor because the scientific attribute you wish to measure could be 'sound level'.

                          Or if the emotion results in turning red and hand-waving then perhaps the best sensor is a camera : ) I've no idea.

                           

                          If you can do some research, examine if you can successfully obtain your required result (a gauge of emotions as you say) using (say) a measure of rate of heartbeat, and if so, then a technical discussion can begin on

                          how to measure the attribute such as the rate of heart beat. Whether heart rate corresponds to emotions I can only speculate - perhaps a psychologist would know the answer - no idea I'm afraid : (

                          4 of 4 people found this helpful
                            • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
                              mrigank

                              Thanks Shahbaz. Very informative. Am looking forward to designing something that would require sensors as percepts and then link it with the appropriate response. For the sensors to decipher the correct response an algorithm needs to be in place so that any increase in any critical measure can be registered and the resulting action carried out based on the sensor results.

                            • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
                              GreenBeanie

                              Hi Mrigank;

                               

                              A single sensor would be unlikely.  A sensor array exists that can do this - It's called a polygraph, or "Lie Detector" (please forgive me if I sound patronizing, as that's not my intent).  If you're not familiar with the device it simultaneously measures heart-rate, respiratory rate, galvanic skin response, and blood pressure.  It's certainly possible to use existing MEMS technology to miniaturize to a single device.  It doesn't measure chemical mediators (adrenaline, dopamine, etc.), so it couldn't be said to "measure emotions"; just their physiologic response.

                              If you added skin perfusion (as in blushing), eye movement, and extremity tremor you could get a more accurate measure of what emotional response was taking place.

                              3 of 3 people found this helpful
                                • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
                                  mrigank

                                  The lie detector is actually a useful bit of info that can be used. However in a situation wherein we are supposed to measure if a person is panicking or not can be seen. Also the lie detector would work for a single person. Am looking for something that can monitor people's reaction in a big area.

                                   

                                  Thanks mate for your time! Do get back if possible.

                                    • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
                                      GreenBeanie

                                      You're welcome Mrigank!

                                       

                                      Copy on multiple people spread over an area.  I'll try to avoid being verbose.  This is a two-part problem that has been, and continues to be, worked on with varying degrees of success.  The other factor you might be able to consider is using "choke points" so you can narrow down the subject pool.  Most of the time these are turnstiles (to enter an area) or single-file lines.  Even in an urban area, though, you can put up sidewalk barriers so people have to funnel through two or three at a time.  That decreases your subject data points considerably.

                                       

                                      Part One: Isolating input to a single person.  Facial recognition software and a high-resolution camera input has come quite far in recognizing a human face.  Limiting factors are density of data (how close in proximity to each other the subjects are), interference modalities (hats, glasses), and certain facial angles (basically too much noise in the sensor input).  For example; if you walk into a US airport with a cap and sunglasses on you're likely to be questioned, as the Computer Vision algorithms have difficulty performing facial recognition.  Most of the actual devices and algorithms that do these kinds of observations are either classified as state secrets, or are at least highly guarded proprietary secrets.

                                       

                                      Part Two: Defining what is an unusual response, such as someone "panicking".  Looking at airports, again, it's difficult to differentiate who might be nervous before they launch an attack vs. someone who doesn't like flying.  The sensor analyses are usually done via computer algorithm.  I can't go into specifics, but current open-source data points for emotional recognition are pupil response and skin temperature.

                                       

                                      Strictly speaking - No, there is not a sensor that detects human emotions from a distance.  Emotional expressions are too variable to read externally.  That's why people can lie to each other.

                                       

                                      Using currently available sensing devices combined with computer algorithms allows for a person to be flagged for questioning and analysis by a human.

                                      3 of 3 people found this helpful
                            • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
                              bsarabu

                              Hello Guys

                               

                              Could somebody help me with knowing as to which sensors is to be used to sense number of people in a building which is on fire ( can infrared sensor work in those conditions and detect humans) or are there any combination of sensors which will do the job. I don't mind even if its in-accurate. I am planing to apply machine learning algorithm to improve its efficiency. What I have in mind is something which can be used in adjacent to smoke detectors

                               

                              Thank you very much in advance

                              bsarabu

                                • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
                                  GreenBeanie

                                  I would go more for computer vision with facial recognition for a passive system.  The resolution on PIR sensors would be overwhelmed by heat from a fire in the vicinity,  I suppose you could theoretically use a Surface Acoustic Wave sensor at floor level to detect movement on X-Y axes, but I would think you'd have problems if people got packed in.  You could use a FLIR array to count objects a a certain temperature, i.e.; a human nose is around 33-35 degrees C when in a "normal living area".

                                   

                                  Another system which could be effective for a group who had cell phones would be to count the number of different IME's that could be polled.

                                   

                                  Much would depend upon the environment: Is this an open area?  Is it a cubicle farm where there are many small enclosed areas?  How large is the area, and expected number of people?  Is it possible to issue each person an active transmitter with an ID badge?  Would there be a choke-point where RFID badges would give you an effective count?  Is this an area where an active fire would be anticipated, or one that would be evacuated as a precaution?  Quite a few questions would need consideration before you started looking at modalities.

                                  2 of 2 people found this helpful
                                • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
                                  rcg513

                                  Try the OMRON thermal sensor D6T available from Digikey and Mouser.

                                  2 of 2 people found this helpful
                                  • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
                                    geoapril96

                                    Hi, I am trying to make an alarm system. What sensor can I use in detecting human presence outside the gate of a house and detects if someone is near their house?

                                      • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
                                        GreenBeanie

                                        Most intruder alarms use Passive Infrared detectors, that pick up on a rise of IR from a body - Good for about 10m (31ft) in optimal conditions.  These won't differentiate between a human and, say, a raccoon climbing on the gate.

                                        Depending upon what's outside the gate you could also use a motion detection system - That won't work if there's traffic close by the gate.  Motion detection is also commonly used within a perimeter.   The better detectors are capable of focused field and fairly long-range,  The lower-priced add-on boards are usually good to about 8m (25ft).

                                        I don't know what system you're using for a host, but there are common brands of these sensors on breakout or add-on boards for the most common microcontrollers and single-board computers.  High-end IP cameras also have motion-detection and alarm capability.

                                        2 of 2 people found this helpful
                                          • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
                                            peteroakes

                                            yup, that pretty much covers it, you can also consider putting a magnetic switch on the gate itself as an additional measure to detect the intruder / visito or Laser / IR beams at strategic places, these could be high enough to avoid being tripped by smaller animals, they may trip for larger preditors like Bears and Sasquatch, or the odd moose

                                        • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
                                          deeps

                                          Hi

                                          This may be a 2 years late reply but

                                          you can use pedestrain detection in opencv

                                          Pedestrian Detection OpenCV - PyImageSearch

                                          today open-CV output has become much more robust and reliable and you can use it with any small board which has Linux and some camera interface.

                                          Also the more you increase camera quality the better the results will be.It is Cross platform and you can use c/c++/python/java/ruby and many more languages with same library

                                           

                                          Also I have a vivid Idea of having sensors beneath the roads and tiles which detect human like ( 2 legged) footsteps to determine presence of a human. A network of sensors beneath our ground that tracks not just our presence but our motion, direction and position. How about this way of doing it ?

                                          2 of 2 people found this helpful
                                          • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
                                            kevalpankhaniya141

                                            Listen  I have solution like that you can use 2 ir sensors at your door and make a visitor counter . At each entry at your door,  controller will count it,  so we can say that there is person in home.

                                            2 of 2 people found this helpful
                                            • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
                                              kas.lewis

                                              CO2, if calibrated correctly and the room has the ventilation set just right a person will increase the CO2 levels but when they are not there the CO2 levels will decrease. This may take some trial and error but I'm sure it can be done.

                                              2 of 2 people found this helpful
                                              • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
                                                kale

                                                Hi!

                                                 

                                                Could anyone give me some advice if I want to build a portable device that detects human presence near it? Ideally a pedestrian can use it to check if anyone is following him. Can this possibly be done with sensors, or should I just use an infrared camera and image processing techniques?

                                                 

                                                I'm pretty new to this topic. Any help will be appreciated. Thank you very much!

                                                • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
                                                  robg713

                                                  Hi there Gunaseelan, was curious of what kind of things are happening that you would suspect the  presence of a human or humans? If you dont mind letting me know because i have a situation similar to you an cant figure out how to prove it and/or end it an its aggravating the shit out of me. So was curious if anything worked for you in your situation an if so please tell because i have to put a end to this. Thank you in advance for your time!!!!                            An if theres anyone here that has any info please do tell an thank you also in advance!!

                                                  • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
                                                    gsgill112

                                                    PIR sensor they are cheep and gets the job done !!

                                                      • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
                                                        shabaz

                                                        Hi Gurinder, the OP specifically rules out PIR sensors:

                                                        Am aware of PIR (Passive Infra Red) sensor , which would human motion but not the human presence .

                                                        Anyway, I don't think a sensor exists to 'detect' humans, just some limited characteristics that humans have (and often these characteristics are not exclusive to humans either). Image recognition usually identifies anything that looks human-shaped. PIR detects anything warm that moves (cat or dog would be included). Also, plenty of 'human interaction' robots are designed to look and move like humans. They can speak too. Short of some intrusive surgery or extracting DNA, or interrogating and hoping that intelligent responses are present for only humans (and how long before this fails too?) I can't see how a machine or a sensor could 'detect' humans. Most of these characteristics can be faked too.

                                                        This might sound pedantic but it's not any more, especially when cameras etc are used to unlock phones and PCs these days.

                                                        2 of 2 people found this helpful
                                                          • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
                                                            gsgill112

                                                            Correctly pointed out shabaz I might have forgotten that while going through the comments, I agree , its difficult to figure out human presence if you are not using any kind of Thermal / Image sensing !

                                                            Jee, sorry for the stupid comment

                                                            • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
                                                              BigG

                                                              It's interesting to read through the comments as no one is focusing on the use of multiple sensor configurations to detect human presence. A single PIR certainly can't determine human movement from some other heat source movement but using multiple PIR sensors could.

                                                               

                                                              Imaging technology via a single lens configuration, for example, still only provides a 2 dimensional picture which does not always return the correct answer, so in my opinion, the ideal, more accurate, scenario would be to try and create a 3-d representation using multiple sensor types. Additional "dimensions" could include things like body mass, for example, which is a proven criteria to differentiate objects.

                                                              2 of 2 people found this helpful
                                                                • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
                                                                  shabaz

                                                                  Hi! Indeed, times have changed, and a device can use processing and multiple sensors to get closer to extracting the desired knowledge of human presence.

                                                                  I forget the name, but there are commercial products that are used for unlocking doors, that use 3D information to detect facial features. I've seen one in action, you just have to stare into it for a couple of seconds.

                                                                  It shows the face on the screen but only for centering purposes, and instead it is measuring the distance to different features on the face. But I don't know if it can be fooled with something that is three-dimensionally like a human : )

                                                                  1 of 1 people found this helpful
                                                                    • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
                                                                      dougw

                                                                      Detecting humans is a big topic. Whoever wants to detect people needs to define the problem precisely if they are to have a hope of finding a suitable solution.

                                                                      • Cameras and image processing can easily detect people and even recognize who they are.
                                                                      • IR cameras have similar capabilities, but can see people in the dark.
                                                                      • MIR (micro-impulse radar) can detect heart beats or respiration even through walls.
                                                                      • FSR (force sensitive resistors) can measure footsteps and body weight.
                                                                      • IR thermometers can measure body temperature remotely (better than PIR).
                                                                      • Ultrasound can image people.
                                                                      • Xray scanners can see image people and their bones.
                                                                      • Millimeter wave scanners can image people and see through their clothing.
                                                                      • Microphones can detect breathing and footsteps.
                                                                      • People can be detected remotely by their charge or capacitance.
                                                                      • Human gas emissions like CO2 can be measured

                                                                      These are just off the top of my head - but there are obviously many technologies that can be used and fused.

                                                                      1 of 1 people found this helpful
                                                                        • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
                                                                          rsc

                                                                          Might be easier and cost effective to pay someone to stand there and watch for people.  People can usually detect other people.

                                                                          We use an ID card for meal tickets, and they are pre-paid, so if you go through the line twice, you get charged twice.

                                                                          Embedded NFC chips would work also.

                                                                • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
                                                                  gauravmehra

                                                                  sir, can yor suggest me a link to study mre about omron d6t and canwe connect audino with omron d6t ????,,,,,,,,,and if possible then how ??? plzz suggest me

                                                                  • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
                                                                    sbujade97

                                                                    if i connect pir sensor with tempereture sensor using or gate can the sytem detect human presence accurately?

                                                                    • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
                                                                      mgviju

                                                                      I would like know how we can detect only single person by using his image and like to know how

                                                                      • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
                                                                        peteroakes

                                                                        So Facial recognition is a way more complex solution than simple presence detection, but there are plenty  of info out there, for instance, google facial Recognition on the raspberry pi

                                                                         

                                                                        For instance https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/facial-recognition-opencv-on-the-camera-board/

                                                                        1 of 1 people found this helpful
                                                                        • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
                                                                          aihtesham

                                                                          That's Interesting topic actually I am looking for same, recently in IOT I found many applications based on IOT that uses different sensors, But there are no any sensor exist that  could sense presence of life. Here life means every object in nature who have life given by god.

                                                                           

                                                                          I think we  need to discover the parameter of life that changes with presence of  surrounding as a example if people present in room may change the amount of CO2 that can be use to draw a conclusion that some life is in room.

                                                                            • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
                                                                              shabaz

                                                                              aihtesham  wrote:

                                                                               

                                                                              But there are no any sensor exist that  could sense presence of life.

                                                                              I think there is a misunderstanding about what a sensor does. A sensor detects one or several properties, such as temperature or light or chemical presence.

                                                                              You use the sensor to get some measurement of those properties. You can use those measurements, in some known environment, to make a conclusion, often based in part on some extrapolation.

                                                                               

                                                                              Here's a thought experiment. Pretend you're a computer system with vast power. How would you detect a human?

                                                                              What questions would you ask your sensor (it could be a human colleague pretending to be a sensor) so that you could make a decision if a human was present?

                                                                              If you asked the sensor to measure if the level of CO2 was changing (which was your example) then that could be defeated with a fire.

                                                                              If you as a human cannot imagine the tools to determine a human is present, how do you expect sensors (let alone "a" sensor) to do it? You'd probably need to check DNA to confirm it anything human is present and not an animal...

                                                                              What if the thing facing you was a human-looking robot with plastic skin on the outside, and it was warm just like a human, and internally had a cylinder of CO2?

                                                                               

                                                                              That being said, most "normal" methods provide a low but usable level of accuracy by making conclusions based on heat or image recognition or sound activity (for instance). Still easy to defeat with a photo of a human facing the camera, or an audio player..

                                                                              2 of 2 people found this helpful
                                                                            • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
                                                                              DAB

                                                                              You can use a thermal IR sensor calibrated to 98.6 degrees F and it will tell you when a human is in its field of view.

                                                                              You have to have the sensor at that precise temperature to discriminate between humans and animals. Just be aware that if someone is ill, they would not be detected.

                                                                               

                                                                              DAB

                                                                              1 of 1 people found this helpful
                                                                                • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
                                                                                  shabaz

                                                                                  Google thinks a horse has a very similar body temperature as a human.

                                                                                  Besides, how would you know where to aim the sensor without first having a method of identifying a known part of the body, and identifying if it is covered or not (which will result in a very different temperature, depending on the thickness of the clothing). Every color here represents a slightly different temperature:

                                                                                  Put simply, there is no easy simple answer. It cannot be done, apart from in a constrained environment, to a certain level of (un)reliability, and a single sensed property like just temperature would be easy to fool too.

                                                                                    • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
                                                                                      DAB

                                                                                      Agreed. You can have it simple or you can have it accurate or you can have it cheap.

                                                                                       

                                                                                      You cannot have all three.

                                                                                       

                                                                                      DAB

                                                                                        • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
                                                                                          shabaz

                                                                                          Agree.. Also I find it interesting how the title and question re-occurs regarding the word "sensor", when it really isn't a sensor issue as much as what can be done with the sensed data. The sensor on its own, and the data on its own is useless.

                                                                                          There's a reason why an accelerometer in a mobile phone, or in other hardware, is so useful. Not because we want to sense acceleration, but because with processing and that single sensor type, we can detect so many different situations (to certain levels of success).

                                                                                          I'd suggest it could even be possible (with suitable processing) to detect human presence reasonably well with even a magnetic sensor, because nearly everyone has something metallic, such as a belt buckle. It's success rate may be as good as any single simple sensor that can be fooled.

                                                                                          It's less to do with the sensors, and more to do with how well information can be extracted from the data (perhaps from one or more sensors) to achieve the task (in this case the task of identifying or classifying humans).. and to do that would require data capture, and lots of training of a model with known humans.

                                                                                          There was a time when processing was expensive, and all we could rely on was (say) an op-amp to help clean up the sensor data, and then we could make some interpretation from that data. So PIR sensors etc were simple. But adequate for a lot of uses.

                                                                                          The state-of-the-art is not a sensor+op amp any more. There's lots of processing that can be done at (or close to) the device/sensor level because computing is cheap(er).

                                                                                          2 of 2 people found this helpful
                                                                                            • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
                                                                                              dougw

                                                                                              I used to spend more on a thermocouple than the cost of a Raspberry Pi, way more if you include the meter.

                                                                                              A Raspberry Pi with a PiCam can do a pretty good job of recognizing people.

                                                                                              2 of 2 people found this helpful
                                                                                                • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
                                                                                                  shabaz

                                                                                                  Agree.. I don't know why the OP excludes image processing - due to incorrectly perceived difficulty, or for a non-technical reason.

                                                                                                  I can understand the desire to possibly exclude due to (say) security/sensitive locations or countries with laws on what is allowed to be captured/temporarily stored, but there are ways to work around that - in particular, replace the video camera with a far lower-res thermal camera imager. For a project I worked on, we did exactly that, using a fancy FLIR Lepton sensor - eliminate the awkward conversation with customers about capturing video in on fell swoop.

                                                                                                  4 of 4 people found this helpful
                                                                                                    • Re: Sensor to detect Human Presence
                                                                                                      dougw

                                                                                                      I once developed a system where fingerprints were used for authentication. The users did not want their fingerprints captured, so we had to be rigorous about only using characteristics and never saving an image. It was not possible to recreate a fingerprint from the characteristics, but they could easily identify a person.

                                                                                                      1 of 1 people found this helpful