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In an article published in the MagPie magazine, the author made the following statement in reference to the Raspberry Pi 3, “The combined resources that the cluster has make it more powerful than a single Raspberry Pi, but that does not make it faster with regard to the small-scale matrix multiplication that I used. The main reason why the cluster is not able to outperform a single Raspberry Pi is the interconnects between the nodes. Using the on-board Ethernet (10/100 Mbps) limits how quickly nodes/processes can communicate with each other.”
I would be interested to learn if that has changed with the Raspberry Pi 4 due to the changes made to the on-board Ethernet.